fetal development
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2022 ◽  
Nazik M.E. Mustafa ◽  
Shahenaz Satti ◽  
Nafisa A. Osman ◽  
Ahmed A.Gameel ◽  
Tarig M. El-hadiyah

Abstract The majority of people in Africa receive their basic health care through herbal treatments. Herbal medicine may negatively impact fetal development irreparably. This study examined the teratogenic potential of Solenstemma argel extract in pregnant rats. Pregnant rats were treated with Solenstemma argel from 7th to 16th day of gestation. The dosage used was 250 mg/kg, intraperitoneal.Solenstemma argel extract treated group showed fetal abnormalities appeared as body hemorrhage, limbs abnormalities and resorption of fetuses. These appears in 25% of the fetuses (P-value = 0.01) which is significantly differed from control group. Furthermore, histopathological findings of liver sections from fetuses of Solenstemma argel - treated mothers showed loose liver texture and hepatocytes hemorrhage.In this study, we conclude that the use Solenstemma argel extract during the organogenesis period in pregnant rats has the potential to cause teratogenic effects, as well as abnormalities in liver histopathology.

Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 17
Ami S. Ikeda ◽  
Valerie S. Knopik ◽  
L. Cinnamon Bidwell ◽  
Stephanie H. Parade ◽  
Sherryl H. Goodman ◽  

In utero cannabis exposure can disrupt fetal development and increase risk for various behavioral disruptions, including hyperactivity, inattention, delinquent behaviors, and later substance abuse, among others. This review summarizes the findings from contemporary investigations linking prenatal cannabis exposure to the development of psychopathology and identifies the limitations within the literature, which constrain our interpretations and generalizability. These limitations include a lack of genetic/familial control for confounding and limited data examining real world products, the full range of cannabinoids, and motives for use specifically in pregnant women. Taken together, our review reveals the need to continue to improve upon study designs in order to allow researchers to accurately draw conclusions about the development of behavioral consequences of prenatal cannabis exposure. Findings from such studies would inform policy and practices regarding cannabis use during pregnancy and move the field toward developing a comprehensive teratogenic profile of cannabis similar to what is characterized in the prenatal alcohol and tobacco literature.

Naoko Suga ◽  
Mari S. Oba ◽  
Iwaho Kikuchi ◽  
Michiya Natori ◽  
Kazuhiro Hisamatsu ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 226 (1) ◽  
pp. S150
Rahul J. D'Mello ◽  
Victoria H. Roberts ◽  
Xiaojie Wang ◽  
Juanito D. Terrobias ◽  
Jamie O. Lo

Development ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 149 (1) ◽  
Bethany R. L. Aykroyd ◽  
Simon J. Tunster ◽  
Amanda N. Sferruzzi-Perri

ABSTRACT Imprinting control region (ICR1) controls the expression of the Igf2 and H19 genes in a parent-of-origin specific manner. Appropriate expression of the Igf2-H19 locus is fundamental for normal fetal development, yet the importance of ICR1 in the placental production of hormones that promote maternal nutrient allocation to the fetus is unknown. To address this, we used a novel mouse model to selectively delete ICR1 in the endocrine junctional zone (Jz) of the mouse placenta (Jz-ΔICR1). The Jz-ΔICR1 mice exhibit increased Igf2 and decreased H19 expression specifically in the Jz. This was accompanied by an expansion of Jz endocrine cell types due to enhanced rates of proliferation and increased expression of pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 23 in the placenta of both fetal sexes. However, changes in the endocrine phenotype of the placenta were related to sexually-dimorphic alterations to the abundance of Igf2 receptors and downstream signalling pathways (Pi3k-Akt and Mapk). There was no effect of Jz-ΔICR1 on the expression of targets of the H19-embedded miR-675 or on fetal weight. Our results demonstrate that ICR1 controls placental endocrine capacity via sex-dependent changes in signalling.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (2) ◽  
pp. 71-85
Hassan Abdelrhman Mohammed ◽  
Eltahir Mohmmed Hussein ◽  
Mahir Mohammed Sharif

This work  aims to design and develop a model that detects and classifies pregnancy health status. Ultrasound is one of the most prevalent developments in clinical imaging, as it enables a doctor to evaluate, analyze and treat diseases. Most complications from pregnancy lead to serious problems that restrict healthy growth, causing weakness or death. In this work, an image processing system was developed to recognize the  health during pregnancy and classify it for all stages of its development. The technique in deep learning has been implemented, as CNN (Resnet50) image recognition model was applied to detect and classify fetal health status from ultrasound images. The proposed model contributed to providing an integrated solution for each pregnancy period that works to identify all stages of fetal development, starting from the pre-pregnancy stage (here it is known about the suitability of the uterus for pregnancy, the size of the ovum, and its ability to form the fetus) and up to the stage of birth, through training, verification and testing using the cross-verification technique that five folds of the diagnostic rudder were used under the patterns that distinguish each stage from the other and to verify that it is sound or unsound in the concerning stage. This study enhanced diagnostic accuracy by using transfer learning and novel accessory images that were not trained as feedback. The model achieved an accuracy of 96.5% in detecting the fetus and classifying it into any of the stages that were divided according to the features that appear from one stage to the next to eleven categories.  

Viktoria Babanina ◽  
Vita Ivashchenko ◽  
Oleg Grudzur ◽  
Yurikov Oleksandr

Through a documentary methodology, the article examines the characteristics of the criminal protection of the life and health of children in Ukraine and some other countries. The problem of determining the time of the beginning of the protection of a child's life and health, is analyzed in the light of the European experience. It is noted that in Ukraine it is necessary to recognize the right to live of the child at any stage of fetal development, to ensure the criminal protection of the child before birth. This approach is enshrined in several international legal acts, as well as confirmed by legal guarantees in the legal systems of many countries around the world. In addition, the article analyzes criminal law measures to guarantee the rights and interests of the child under modern Ukrainian law. The list of socially dangerous acts against minors is a result, so reinforced criminal liability is provided for considering the interests of minors. It has been concluded that in all post-Soviet countries the components of crimes against a person's health, considering the legislator's reaction to causing harm to the health of children during their commission, are clearly divided into three separate groups.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Yufei Wu ◽  
Yaqun Zhou ◽  
Jian Huang ◽  
Ke Ma ◽  
Tianyou Yuan ◽  

Sorting nexin 17 (SNX17), a member of sorting nexin (SNX) family, acts as a modulator for endocytic recycling of membrane proteins. Results from our previous study demonstrated the embryonic lethality of homozygous defect of SNX17. In this study, we investigated the role of SNX17 in rat fetal development. Specifically, we analyzed patterns of SNX17 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in multiple rat tissues and found high expression in the cardiac outflow tract (OFT). This expression was gradually elevated during the cardiac OFT morphogenesis. Homozygous deletion of the SNX17 gene in rats resulted in mid-gestational embryonic lethality, which was accompanied by congenital heart defects, including the double-outlet right ventricle and atrioventricular and ventricular septal defects, whereas heterozygotes exhibited normal fetal development. Moreover, we found normal migration distance and the number of cardiac neural crest cells during the OFT morphogenesis. Although cellular proliferation in the cardiac OFT endocardial cushion was not affected, cellular apoptosis was significantly suppressed. Transcriptomic profiles and quantitative real-time PCR data in the cardiac OFT showed that SNX17 deletion resulted in abnormal expression of genes associated with cardiac development. Overall, these findings suggest that SNX17 plays a crucial role in cardiac development.

Selvia Lorena Br Ginting ◽  
Agnia F D ◽  
Ginting Y R ◽  

This research aims to create Smart Health Pregnancy software that educates pregnant women on fetal development. During pregnancy, a pregnant woman’s health highly influences the pregnancy success rate. Thus, knowing the pregnancy process is necessary for pregnant women. Although resources concerning fetal development such as textbooks, general articles, and websites can be accessed easily, these resources are often too condensed with text, have a less interactive display, and provide inadequate information. Therefore, Smart Health Pregnancy software would facilitate pregnant women in understanding fetal development, displayed in an interactive way using Augmented Reality (AR) technology. The AR method utilized is a marker-based tracking method where the user can use an Android smartphone camera to receive a marker that can display a virtual object in the real world. The virtual object is presented in the form of the embryo or fetus from 1 to 38 weeks in 3D. Furthermore, important information regarding fetal development and the health of pregnant women is also shown. From the results, 95% of the respondents stated that this software is user-friendly and very informative. It shows that the software has performed well and can educate pregnant women.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (24) ◽  
pp. 5831
Diana Cenariu ◽  
Sabina Iluta ◽  
Alina-Andreea Zimta ◽  
Bobe Petrushev ◽  
Liren Qian ◽  

Hematopoiesis is the formation of blood cellular components and, consequently, immune cells. In a more complete definition, this process refers to the formation, growth, maturation, and specialization of blood cells, from the hematopoietic stem cell, through the hematopoietic progenitor cells, to the s pecialized blood cells. This process is tightly regulated by several elements of the bone marrow microenvironment, such as growth factors, transcription factors, and cytokines. During embryonic and fetal development, hematopoiesis takes place in different organs: the yolk sac, the aorta–gonad mesonephros region, the lymph nodes, and not lastly, the fetal liver and the spleen. In the current review, we describe extramedullary hematopoiesis of the spleen and liver, with an emphasis on myeloproliferative conditions.

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