microbiota composition
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2022 ◽  
Vol 204 ◽  
pp. 112068
Carolina Ramírez ◽  
María Soledad Gutiérrez ◽  
Lucas Venegas ◽  
Catalina Sapag ◽  
Carolina Araya ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 73 ◽  
pp. 135-142
Matteo Chialva ◽  
Luisa Lanfranco ◽  
Paola Bonfante

Stefan Dietrich ◽  
Iris Trefflich ◽  
Per Magne Ueland ◽  
Juliane Menzel ◽  
Katharina J. Penczynski ◽  

Abstract Purpose It has been estimated that most vegans meet the total protein requirements, but whether this is also true for individual essential amino acids (AAs) is unclear. Furthermore, a shift in protein intake is suggested to alter microbiota composition, but this association is unknown in terms of veganism or individual AAs. This cross-sectional study compared vegans and omnivores regarding dietary intake and plasma concentration of AAs. The prevalence of insufficient intake of essential AAs among vegans was determined using estimated average requirements (EAR) of WHO. Moreover, correlations between AAs intake and gut microbiota were investigated. Methods Data of 36 vegans and 36 omnivores (30–60 years) were analysed. AA intake, AA plasma concentrations and gut microbiota were ascertained by three-day weighed food protocols, gas/liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA sequencing, respectively. Results At almost the same energy intake, the intake of 9 AAs in vegans was significantly lower than in omnivores, with median differences of − 27.0% to − 51.9%. However, only one female vegan showed total protein and lysine intake below the EAR. Vegans showed lower lysine (− 25.0%), but higher glycine (+ 25.4%) and glutamate (+ 13.1%) plasma concentrations than omnivores. Correlation patterns between AA intake and bacterial microbiota differed between vegans and omnivores. In vegans 19 species and in omnivores 5 species showed correlations with AA intake. Conclusion Vegans consumed apparently sufficient but lower AAs than omnivores. In addition, the different AAs intake seems to influence the microbiota composition. The use of short-term dietary data without considering usual intake limits these findings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Pabodha Weththasinghe ◽  
Sérgio D. C. Rocha ◽  
Ove Øyås ◽  
Leidy Lagos ◽  
Jon Ø. Hansen ◽  

Abstract Background Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) is a promising insect species to use as a novel ingredient in fish feeds. Black soldier fly larvae consists of three major fractions, namely protein, lipid, and exoskeleton. These fractions contain bioactive compounds that can modulate the gut microbiota in fish such as antimicrobial peptides, lauric acid, and chitin. However, it is not certain how, or which fractions of black solider fly would affect gut microbiota in fish. In the present study, black soldier fly larvae were processed into three different meals (full-fat, defatted and de-chitinized) and two fractions (oil and exoskeleton), and included in diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Atlantic salmon pre-smolts were fed with these diets in comparison with a commercial-like control diet for eight weeks to investigate the effects of insect meals and fractions on the composition and predicted metabolic capacity of gut microbiota. The gut microbiota was profiled by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the predicted metabolic capacities of gut microbiota were determined using genome-scale metabolic models. Results The inclusion of insect meals and fractions decreased abundance of Proteobacteria and increased abundance of Firmicutes in salmon gut. The diets that contained insect chitin, i.e., insect meals or exoskeleton diets, increased abundance of chitinolytic bacteria including lactic acid bacteria and Actinomyces in salmon gut, with fish fed full-fat meal diet showing the highest abundances. The diets that contained insect lipids, i.e., insect meals and oil diets enriched Bacillaceae in fish gut. The fish fed diets containing full-fat insect meal had a unique gut microbiota composition dominated by beneficial lactic acid bacteria and Actinomyces, and showed a predicted increase in mucin degradation compared to the other diets. Conclusions The present results showed that the dietary inclusion of insect meals and fractions can differently modulate the composition and predicted metabolic capacity of gut microbiota in Atlantic salmon pre-smolts. The use of full-fat black soldier fly larvae meal in diets for salmon is more favorable for beneficial modulation of gut microbiota than larvae processed by separation of lipid or exoskeleton fractions.

Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 34
Zhiwei Bao ◽  
Weitao Wang ◽  
Xiaofang Wang ◽  
Mingrong Qian ◽  
Yuanxiang Jin

Difenoconazole (DIF) is a widely separated triazole fungicide in many countries. The excessive usage of DIF increases the high volume of residues in agriculture production and water bodies. Some previous studies demonstrated the toxic effects of DIF on non-target animals, however, there were still some gaps in the knowledge of the potential hazards of DIF to mammals and human health. Herein, 7-week-old male mice were exposed to 30 and 100 mg/kg/day DIF for 14 and 56 days. We observed that 56 days of DIF exposure decreased the colonic mucus expression of alcin blue-periodic acid-schiff (AB-PAS) stain and the immunochemical stain of muc2 protein. The transcript levels of mucin protein (muc1, muc2 and muc3) decreased significantly in the gut of mice followed 56 days of 100 mg/kg/day DIF exposure. In addition, the gut microbiota composition was also affected after 14 or 56 days of DIF exposure. Although the mucus expression after 14 days of DIF exposure only decreased slightly, the gut microbiota composition compared with the control group was changed significantly. Moreover, the DIF-30 and DIF-100 caused respectively different changes on the gut microbiota. The relative abundance of Bacteroidetes decreased significantly after 14 days and 56 days of DIF exposure. After 14 days of DIF exposure, there were 35 and 18 differential genera in the DIF-30 and DIF-100 group, respectively. There were 25 and 32 differential genera in the DIF-30 and DIF-100 group after 56 days of exposure, respectively. Meanwhile, the alpha diversity indexes, including observed species, Shannon, Simpson, Chao1 and ACE, in gut microbiota decreased significantly after 56 days of DIF exposure. Interestingly, the relative abundance of Akkermansia increased significantly after 56 days of 100 mg/kg/d DIF exposure. Although Akkermansia was considered as one probiotic, the phenomenon of dramatic Akkermansia increase with the decrease in gut microbiota diversity needed further discussion. These results provided some new insights on how DIF exposure impacts the mucus barrier and induces gut microbiota dysbiosis.

2022 ◽  
Yanmin Li ◽  
Hong Cao ◽  
Bojian Fei ◽  
Chuanqing Bao ◽  
Jianmin Xu ◽  

Abstract Background: The prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) worldwide is a huge challenge to human health. Primary tumor locations found to impact prognosisand response to therapy. The important role of gut microbiota in the progression and treatment of CRC has led to many attempts of alleviating chemotherapy-induced adverse effects using microecologics. However, the underlying mechanism of the difference in the prognosis of different primary tumor locations and the synergistic effect of prebiotics on chemotherapy need to be further elucidated. This study aims to explore the differences in tumor microbiota and examine the effectiveness of xylooligosaccharides (XOS) on gut microbiota, adverse effects, and bioavailability of chemotherapy drugs in CRC patients at different primary tumor locations.Methods: This is a double-blinded, randomized, parallel controlled clinical trial. Participants with left-sided CRC (LSCRC, n = 50) and right-sided CC (RSCC, n = 50) will randomly allocated to prebiotic group (n = 25) or control group (n = 25) and will receive either a daily XOS (3 g/d) or placebo, respectively, for 12 weeks. The primary outcomes will be the differences in the mucosa microbiota composition at different tumor locations, and differences in gut microbiota composition, adverse effects, and blood concentration of capecitabine posttreatment. The secondary outcomes will include other blood indicators, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentration, quality of life, and mental health.Discussion: This study will reveal the potential benefits of prebiotic for improving the gut microbiota composition, alleviating the adverse effects, and improving the efficacy of chemotherapy in patients with CRC. In addition, this study will provide data on the different distribution of tumor microbiota and the different changes of gut microbiota during treatment in LSCRC and RSCC, which may provide novel insights into personalized cancer treatment strategies based on primary tumor locations and gut microbiota in the future.Trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry(www.chictr.org.cn): ChiCTR2100046237. Registered on 12 May 2021.

2022 ◽  
pp. 285-338
David Torrallardona ◽  
Joan Tarradas ◽  
Núria Tous ◽  

Exogenous enzymes are used in pig diets to improve the availability and digestibility of some non-accessible nutrients. As result of this enhanced digestion, short fragments of these molecules may become available in the distal foregut and the hindgut and modulate microbiota composition, gut barrier integrity, and overall animal health. This chapter reviews the effects of different exogenous enzymes (carbohydrases, phytases, proteases and lipases) on nutrient digestibility, gut microbial ecology, and barrier function and immunity of pigs at different ages (sows, weaned piglets, growing/fattening pigs). Exogenous enzymes are usually included into feeds as blends so they can complement each other’s activities and further improve the accessibility to non-digestible structures. Exogenous enzymes used in feed manufacturing for more than 30 years, initially to improve the digestive function of non-digestible nutrients (i.e. fibre, phytic acid, etc.), more recently other indirect actions on the regulation of gut microbiota and gut health have gained interest.

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