serum progesterone
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2022 ◽  
Murat Can Demir ◽  
Cihan Kaçar ◽  
Umut Çağın Arı ◽  
Semra Kaya ◽  
Oğuz Merhan ◽  

Abstract The present study aimed to determine the effects of progesterone-based gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), and equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) injections on progesterone profiles and pregnancy rates in cows with no estrus symptoms within 60 days after parturition. A total of 80 cows were included in the study. All animals had the progesterone-releasing device PRID®Delta placed intravaginally for nine days with an injection of GnRH. On the eighth day, PGF2α was injected, and PRID®Delta was removed from the vagina on day nine. Artificial insemination was carried out 60 hours after PRID®Delta removal. In half of the animals (n = 40), 600 IU of eCG was injected when PRID®Delta was removed on the ninth day before artificial insemination 60 hours later. Blood samples were taken from the tail vein on days 0 and 8 to determine progesterone levels. The pregnancy rate in the group that received eCG was 37.5%, while it was 27.5% in those that did not (P = 0.4). While the dominant follicle diameter was 15.5 mm in cows injected with eCG during timed artificial insemination, the follicle diameter was 12.4 mm in cows with no eCG injection (P <0.001). There were no differences in serum progesterone values in blood samples taken until the time of artificial insemination. However, progesterone values in the blood taken during artificial insemination were 0.94 ng/ml in the eCG- group and 0.72 ng/ml in the eCG+ group (P <0.05). As a result, it was determined that eCG injections, in addition to progesterone-based GnRH and PGF2α applications, increased the pregnancy rates in cows without symptoms of estrus. The dominant follicle diameter was larger in cows treated with eCG during artificial insemination; however, follicle size did not increase the pregnancy rate.

Trials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Lin Haiyan ◽  
Yang Gang ◽  
Li Yu ◽  
Li Lin ◽  
Chen Xiaoli ◽  

Abstract Background In previous retrospective studies, low serum progesterone level on the embryo transfer day is associated with lower clinical pregnancy and ongoing pregnancy rates. Whether adding progesterone in low serum progesterone patients can rescue the outcome, there is no sufficient evidence from randomized controlled studies. Methods This trial is a clinical randomized controlled study (high serum progesterone vs low serum progesterone 1:1, 1:1 randomization ratio of intervention vs the control group with low serum progesterone). The eligible hormone replacement therapy—frozen embryo transfer (HRT-FET) cycles, will be recruited and randomly assigned to two parallel groups when serum progesterone is < 7.24μg/l on the day of embryo transfer for D3. The intervention group will be extrally given intramuscular progesterone 40 mg per day from D3 to 8 weeks of gestation if clinical pregnancy. The primary outcome is the ongoing pregnancy (beyond 12 weeks of gestation) rate. Discussion The findings of this study will provide strong evidence for whether the progesterone addition from the D3 in low serum progesterone patients can improve the outcome in the HRT-FET cycle. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.govNCT04248309. Registered on January 28, 2020

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (B) ◽  
pp. 36-41
Shereen Abdulhussien Kzar ◽  
Zainab Khafajy ◽  
Shatha Sadiq Al-Marayaty

BACKGROUND: In intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) infertility treatment cycles, measuring serum Progesterone level at day 9 after oocyte retrieval could be used as a predictor of success. METHODS: Sixty-nine women were prospectively included in this study, treated with fresh embryo transfer ICSI cycles. Progesterone analyses were performed on the day of oocyte pick up (day 0) at serum and follicular fluid, then re-assessment at serum on day 9 after oocyte retrieval. The data were compared to evaluate the correlation among hormones measured on day 0 and day 9 with pregnancy rate. RESULTS: Pregnancy rate of Iraqi women was 22% (n = 15), mean serum progesterone on day 9 among pregnant ladies was (mean ± SD, 39.5 ± 13.0) which was significantly higher than that who failed to get pregnant (mean 23.2 ± 11, p = 0.001), then after adjustment of the baseline readings (day 0) estimated mean = 11.1. The differences were still significant, receiver operating characteristic curve area showed that serum Progesterone on day 9 after pick up can differentiate correctly between those who will conceive and those who will not, with a sensitivity = 0.933 and specificity = 0.519, at cut off point = 22.33 and above, (Area under the curve = 0.822, p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Serum progesterone on day 9 could be one of the predictors of endometrial receptivity and pregnancy, which is actually of great value for both doctors and patients during that stressful period till the date of confirmation, which might negatively affect treatment outcome, as well as the psychosocial and pharmacological impact of medication and limited activity for a failed one.

2022 ◽  
pp. 109658
Paulo Henrique Leal Bertolo ◽  
Maria Eduarda Bastos Andrade Moutinho da Conceição ◽  
Rafael Rocha Mello Emboaba da Costa ◽  
Ana Paula Prudente Jacintho ◽  
Rafael Silva Cipriano ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
Kadir E.R ◽  
Ibrahim A ◽  
Imam A ◽  
Onigbolabi O. G ◽  
Imam A. A ◽  

Background: Misoprostol is a synthetic prostaglandin E1 analogue, used for the management of miscarriages and labour. Castor oil is a natural plant extract that has been reported to have some abortifacient Properties Objectives: This study investigated the labour induction and abortifacient properties of castor oil, as well as possible effects on the electrolytes and hormones that regulate pregnancy, as well as to compare these effects with a standard labour inducing drug misoprostol, in Wistar rats. Methods: The study was conducted out in 2 phases. The pregnant rats were administered varying Castor oil doses of low (12.4ml/kg), medium (18.6ml/kg) and high (24.8ml/kg), which were compared with misoprostol group as well as a control group. All animals were euthanized on gestational day 15 and day 20 respectively for the two phases and blood samples collected via cardiac puncture from the apex of the heart for hormonal assay, electrolyte and kidney function tests. The uterus was also removed for histological processing. Results: The abortifacient effect of castor oil is dose dependent with high dose castor oil group seen to have significantly reduced serum progesterone level (32.8±4.25 and 40.8±0.70 compared with 51.0±2.00 of controls), resulted in weight loss and interference with kidney function (increase in serum potassium while decrease in sodium electrolytes). Castor oil also exhibited labor inducing properties. Conclusion: Castor oil has the potential to induce abortion. This study has demonstrated a possible usage of castor oil in medical induction of labor in rats as it exerted uterotonic principle on the uterus.

Deepak J ◽  
C. Jayakumar, Hiron M. Harshan and K. D. John Martin M. P. ◽  
Hiron M. Harshan and K. D. John Martin C. ◽  
John Martin K. D. ◽  
John Martin K. D.

A study was conducted in 18 healthy, fertile, non-pregnant, dioestrous female dogs to evaluate the efficacy of PGF2? analogue (cloprostenol sodium) in shortening the dioestrus. Bitches that were diagnosed non-pregnant by trans-abdominal ultrasonography, on day 30 of breeding and their dioestrual stage confirmed by serum progesterone assay, were randomly allotted to three groups of six bitches each. Group I and II bitches were treated with cloprostenol sodium @ 2.5 µg/kg b. wt., subcutaneously, thrice at 48 h interval, beginning on day 30 and 45 of last breeding, respectively. Group III animals were assigned as control and were left untreated. Fifty days from first injection of cloprostenol, serum progesterone assay was carried out among the animals in Group I and II whereas the same was done among Group III bitches on day 90 after last breeding. Among Group I and II, mean serum progesterone concentrations were 0.93 ± 0.04 and 0.87 ± 0.01ng/ mL, respectively whereas the level was 1.72 ± 0.9 ng/mL among control group; highly significant difference (p<0.01) existed between control and treatment groups. The present study indicated that administration of PGF2? analogue during dioestrus enhances the pace of luteal regression among non-pregnant bitches.

2021 ◽  
Marisa Senngam ◽  
Juthathip Suphanklang ◽  
Wichai santimaleeworagun ◽  
Piradee Suwanpakdee ◽  
Pornsawan Mekhasingharrak ◽  

Abstract Background: Progesterone belongs to a class of neurosteroids used for the reduction of seizure frequency in patients with refractory epilepsy. However, the pharmacokinetics of progesterone and its active derivative, allopregnanolone, have never been studied in these patients. Objectives: This study was aim to explore the pharmacokinetic parameters of progesterone 400 mg every 12 h, for 3 months, in patients with refractory epilepsy as an add-on therapy to control seizures. Phoenix® WinNonlin® was used to analyse the pharmacokinetic parameters. Results: Twelve patients were recruited. From a therapeutic drug monitoring, the serum progesterone and allopregnanolone levels after taking the first dose of progesterone were characterised by a time to maximum concentration (Tmax) median of 1 and 2.5 h, a maximum concentration (Cmax) median of 274.97 and 3.81 ng/mL, and a minimum concentration (Cmin) median of 56.93 and 1.06 ng/mL, respectively. The median values of the pharmacokinetic parameters of progesterone and allopregnanolone during the steady state were as follows: t1/2 of 2.4 and 2.0 h, Cmax of 964.35 and 8.92 ng/mL, and Cmin of 64.67 and 1.86 ng/mL, respectively. By examining the relationship between the progesterone or allopregnanolone concentrations with seizure-controlling ability, we could identify a responder patient group with 6- to 7-fold higher serum concentrations of progesterone and allopregnanolone than the non-responders. Conclusions: We could establish higher serum levels of both progesterone and allopregnanolone, which could consequently relate to lowering the seizure frequency in patients with refractory epilepsy. The suggested progesterone dose was 400 mg orally every 12 h against refractory epilepsy Trial registration: This study has been registered on the Thai Clinical Trials Registry (No. TCTR20200710005, 10 July 2020)

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Qiyu Yang ◽  
Lixia Zhu ◽  
Meng Wang ◽  
Bo Huang ◽  
Zhou Li ◽  

Abstract Background To improve the developmental competence of in vitro cultured oocytes, extensive literature focused on maturation rate improvement with different additives in culture medium, while studies investigating the maturation dynamics of oocytes during in vitro maturation (IVM) and the influencing factors on oocyte viability are scarce. Methods The study involved a retrospective observation by time-lapse monitoring of the IVM process of 157 donated GV oocytes from 59 infertile couples receiving ICSI in 2019, in Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China. The GV oocytes derived from controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) cycles underwent rescue IVM (R-IVM), and the maturation dynamics, including GVBD time (GV-MI), time from GVBD to maturation (MI-MII), maturation time (GV-MII), and MII arrest duration (MII-ICSI), were recorded by time-lapse monitoring. The matured oocytes were inseminated at different MII arrest points and subsequent embryo developments were assessed. The effects of baseline clinical characteristics, oocyte diameters, and maturation dynamics on the developmental competence of the oocytes were also analyzed. Results Totally, 157 GV oocytes were collected. GVBD happened in 111 oocytes, with a median GV-MI duration of 3.7 h. The median MI-MII duration was 15.6 h and the median GV-MII duration was 19.5 h. The maturation rate reached 56.7% at 24 h and 66.9% at 48 h, and the clinical factors, including patient age, FSH level, AMH level, ovarian stimulation protocol, and serum estradiol and progesterone levels on hCG trigger day, showed no effects on the 24-h maturation rate. The normal fertilization rate of oocytes resuming meiosis within 8 h and matured within 24 h was significantly higher than that of oocytes resuming meiosis after 8 h and matured after 24 h. Furthermore, among those oocytes matured within 24 h, the high-quality embryo formation rate of oocytes resuming meiosis within 4.5 h and matured within 19 h was significantly higher. All stated time was measured from the start point of IVM. Additionally, for oocytes from patients with serum progesterone levels less than 1 ng/ml on hCG trigger day, the high-quality embryo formation rate was significantly increased. Conclusion R-IVM technology could increase the available embryos for patients in routine COH cycles, but excessive culture beyond 24 h is not recommended. GV-MI duration of the oocyte, recorded by time-lapse system, and serum progesterone levels of patients on hCG trigger day can significantly affect the developmental potential of the IVM oocytes.

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