Moral Judgment
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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jaime J. Castrellon ◽  
Shabnam Hakimi ◽  
Jacob Parelman ◽  
Lun Yin ◽  
Jonathan R. Law ◽  
...  

Jury decisions are among the most consequential social decisions in which bias plays a notable role. While courts take a number of measures to reduce the influence of bias on decisions about case strength or deserved punishment based on evidence introduced during a trial, jurors may still incorporate personal biases based on knowledge, experience, emotion, and beliefs independent of evidence. One common form of this bias, crime-type bias, is the extent to which the perceived strength of a case depends on the severity of the crime. A number of explanations from psychology and law point to the role of moral judgment, social cognition, and affect as core processes of bias. However, behavioral evidence alone makes these explanations difficult to distinguish. To overcome this challenge, we used fMRI to record brain activation patterns of mock jurors as they read a series of criminal scenarios and rated the strength of the cases and deserved punishment. Compared to patterns of brain activation derived from large neuroimaging databases, mock jurors’ neural activation patterns related to crime-type bias were most similar to patterns associated with social cognition (such as those associated with mentalizing and racial bias) but not affect or moral judgment. Further, results indicated that crime-type bias could be explained by variability in victim harm. Our results support a central role for social cognition in juror decision making and suggest that crime-type bias may arise from similar mechanisms that precipitate other biases like stereotypes about culture or race.


2021 ◽  
Vol 168 ◽  
pp. S193
Author(s):  
Zhengxian Liu ◽  
Lan Yang ◽  
Siyu Long ◽  
Junce Wang ◽  
Bingxin Huang ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
pp. 216770262110438
Author(s):  
Dillon M. Luke ◽  
Craig S. Neumann ◽  
Bertram Gawronski

A major question in clinical and moral psychology concerns the nature of the commonly presumed association between psychopathy and moral judgment. In the current preregistered study ( N = 443), we aimed to address this question by examining the relation between psychopathy and responses to moral dilemmas pitting consequences for the greater good against adherence to moral norms. To provide more nuanced insights, we measured four distinct facets of psychopathy and used the CNI model to quantify sensitivity to consequences ( C), sensitivity to moral norms ( N), and general preference for inaction over action ( I) in responses to moral dilemmas. Psychopathy was associated with a weaker sensitivity to moral norms, which showed unique links to the interpersonal and affective facets of psychopathy. Psychopathy did not show reliable associations with either sensitivity to consequences or general preference for inaction over action. Implications of these findings for clinical and moral psychology are discussed.


Cognition ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 217 ◽  
pp. 104890
Author(s):  
Felix A. Sosa ◽  
Tomer Ullman ◽  
Joshua B. Tenenbaum ◽  
Samuel J. Gershman ◽  
Tobias Gerstenberg

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Chenhao Hu ◽  
Zhen Wu

There is a growing concern for environmental issues and urgent need to understand interaction between human behavior and nature. Rewarding environmental protection and punishing harm can be the behavioral consequence of the moral judgment to environmental actions. Two studies (N = 211) were designed to understand the early development of such moral behaviors. In Study 1 and the follow-up conceptual replication Study 2, we performed 4- to 6-year-old children with both environmental protection and harm. Three tasks measured children’s behavioral responses toward environmental actions: reward the action that they think is good or punish the action that they think is bad even at a cost. Results demonstrated that children differentiate environmental actions and depicted an age-increase preference to environmental protection. Preschoolers, as a third-party bystander, actively punish environmental harm; with age, they become more consistently and steadily willing to be punitive even with a personal sacrifice. Together, young children are pro-environmental; from early in development children show a behavioral capacity to promote environmental good. The research fills the gap between moral judgment and behavior and contributes to applied implications.


Author(s):  
David M. Long

Impression management is defined as controlling how one is seen by others. Most of the important outcomes in life, including friends, romantic partners, job opportunities, and happiness, are contingent on how one is perceived in social situations. Since the 1950s scholars across multiple disciplines of social science have noted the importance of impression management and have developed key theoretical interpretations and taxonomies of how, why, and for whom impression management occurs and whether it is likely to have its intended effect. Virtually any behavior can be used for impression management purposes, and the desired outcomes range from positive, when the behaviors are intended to be seen in a favorable light, to negative, when the behaviors are intended to be seen in an unfavorable light. Although impression management has been relatively free of controversy as a scholarly topic, some disagreements have formed around the ethics of managing impressions, how to best measure impression management, and whether impression management explains some of the more venerable topics in social science such as prosocial behavior, cognitive dissonance, and moral judgment. A typical episode of impression management occurs when an actor performs an act in the hope of influencing targets in a certain way, and scholarly work has noted the importance of the target in this process since the target is not only the audience who judges the actors’ performances but also the critic who provides the actors with feedback that can be used in subsequent performances. Other work has investigated how easy it is to mismanage an impression, such as when “humble bragging” and giving “backhanded compliments.”


2021 ◽  
Vol 219 ◽  
pp. 103392
Author(s):  
Flora Schwartz ◽  
Hakim Djeriouat ◽  
Bastien Trémolière

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mohammed Fadel Arandas ◽  
Chang Peng Kee ◽  
Emma Mohamad ◽  
Syed Arabi Idid

The study has examined the similarities and differences in the coverage of two Palestinian news agencies Ma’an and Palestinian Information Center (PIC) on the reactions of Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas’s regarding relocating the US embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. The study has also aimed to explore the use of four function of framing by Entman 1993 in the news stories of both agencies. Qualitative content analysis has been adopted to achieve the aim of this study. The total sampling number was 9 news stories; 3 stories have been retrieved from Ma’an, and the other 6 have been retrieved from PIC. The time frame has started from December 5, 2017 which marked the day of informing Abbas by Trump’s decision to move the Embassy until December 22 2017 which was a day after gaining a sweeping victory in UN by president Abbas through a resolution that rejected the decision. Both of the news agencies were supportive to President Abbas in their coverage and none of them has any negative coverage about him. From the sampling number it can be seen that PIC has paid more attention for the coverage of this issue than Ma’an. However, PIC has ignored the success of President Abbasfor achieving UN resolution against Trump’s decision. Moreover, all the news stories has included “define the problem” while excluded “diagnose causes” functions. However both“make moral judgment” and “suggest remedies” have been included in all news stories of Ma’an, and only half of news stories of PIC.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mohammed Fadel Arandas ◽  
Chang Peng Kee ◽  
Emma Mohamad ◽  
Syed Arabi Idid

The main focus of this study is the coverage of New Straits Times (NST) of the first Palestinian General Elections for two presidential candidates namely, Yasser Arafat and Samiha Khalil. This study aimed to explore if any of Entman’s 1993 framing functions was used in the coverage of this issue and to explore whether the tone of NST coverage was negative, positive, balanced or neutral. Toachieve the aims of this study, qualitative content analysis of elections stories from NST has been adopted. The number of news stories was eight, and the time frame started from 19th January to 13th February 1996, where three of these stories were published on the same day of 22nd January,two days after holding the elections on 20th January. Defining problems and diagnosing causes werethe most prominent of Entman’s four framing functions presented in all the articles. The moral judgment function was included in four news stories, and suggesting remedies was included in two news stories out of eight. The findings revealed that Yasser Arafat received 50% balanced coverage, followed by 37.5% positive coverage, and only 12.5% negative coverage, while Samiha Khalilreceived 67% balanced coverage, compared to 33% positive coverage.


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