high performance liquid chromatography
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
M.S. Mahmood ◽  
A. Ashraf ◽  
S. Ali ◽  
A.B. Siddique ◽  
F. Asad ◽  
...  

Abstract Increasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These infections can be life-threatening to young children and the elderly. There is an incentive to find alternative control measures, such as plant and herbal extracts, especially in lesser-developed countries where traditional antibiotics may not be readily available.


2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 383-387
Author(s):  
Yahia Z. Tabaza ◽  
Kamal M. Mansi ◽  
Hanan A. Azzam ◽  
Farah F. Al-Mamoori ◽  
Ali M. Al-Samydai ◽  
...  

Purpose: To develop a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in dietary supplements. Methods: A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of DHEA in dietary supplements. An isocratic system consisting of methanol and water (70:30 v/v) was run at a flow rate of 1 mL/min on a C18 HPLC column to achieve the separation. The method was validated with regard to linearity, intra-day and inter-day precision, and limits of both detection and quantification. Results: The method achieved a retention time of 10.8 min, a resolution of 4.12, a detection limit (LOD) of 50 ng/μL, a quantification limit (LOQ) of 166.7 ng/μL and a label claim of 108.6 % with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.38 % over a range of 0.0625 – 0.50 mg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997. Conclusion: The method is simple, cost effective, time-saving and reliable for determining DHEA when compared to other reported methods in literature. Thus, it will be of benefit to manufacturers of this dietary supplement to adopt the method for quantitative laboratory analysis.


Food Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 20-26
Author(s):  
A. Sassi ◽  
Normah H. ◽  
M.M.A.K. Khattak ◽  
Hanapi M.J.

Anacardium occidentale young leaves are consumed traditionally as part of a Southeast Asian diet. The regular consumption is believed to have beneficial effects on health in general and potentially against type 2 Diabetes mellitus due to its high content of polyphenols. This study was aimed to investigate the polyphenol content of the plant using two methanol extracts; Free Phenolic Extract (FPE) and Bound Phenolic Extract (BPE) as well as highlight the presence of six phenolic acids and flavonoids namely; gallic acid, sinapinic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin and kaempferol using High performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (HPLC-UV-Vis). The results for polyphenols and flavonoids content showed high amounts of total polyphenols in BPE with 8.5±0.57 mg GAE/g as well as high amounts of total flavonoids in both extracts FPE and BPE with 0.58±0.06 and 0.86±0.05 mg QE/g respectively (p<0.05). The presence of these polyphenols was further confirmed by measuring the antioxidant activity through the scavenging of the free radical DPPH which showed an IC50 value for FPE (5.17±0.64 µg/ mL, BPE (4.96±0.12 µg/mL) compared to the positive control ascorbic acid (4.91±0.43 µg/mL). The high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array confirmed the presence of all four targeted phenolic acids with the highest amount showing in gallic acid and sinapinic acid in BPE with 148.12±6.44 µg gallic acid/g dry weight and 47.02±1.94 µg sinapinic acid/g dry weight respectively. As for flavonoids, quercetin was present in both extracts with 20.38±1.22 µg/g dry weight in BPE and 5.21±0.1 µg/g dry weight in FPE while Kaempferol was not detectable in either extract. These findings confirmed the importance of A. occidentale as a rich source of polyphenols which can be further investigated to determine its effects in-vitro and in-vivo on non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes.


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