Liquid Chromatography
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2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. 160-175
Author(s):  
Keziah Uchechi Ajah ◽  
Ozioma Anne Asomugha ◽  
Chinazom Perpetua Ifedigbo ◽  
Kosoluchukwu Chidubem Umeh ◽  
Onyeka Chinwuba Obidiegwu ◽  
...  

Isoflavones and flavonoids in general found in fruits and vegetable act as natural antioxidants. This study was aimed at screening the isoflavone-rich fractions of Vitex doniana fruit extract for antioxidant activity using in vitro and in vivo models. The ethyl acetate and butanol fractions were screened for in vitro antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging and FRAP (Fe3+ Reducing Antioxidant Power) assays using ascorbic acid as standard. In vivo antioxidant activity was also tested against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity in mice using carbon tetrachloride (4 mL/kg) and silymarin (100 mg/kg) as standard. The ethyl acetate fraction and butanol Vacuum Liquid Chromatography (VLC) sub-fractions were subjected to High Performance Liquid Chromatography–Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses. The ethyl acetate and butanol fractions inhibited DPPH radicals with an IC50 of 897 µg/mL and 2809.38 µg/mL respectively. Both fractions also showed mild FRAP result with EC50 of 1401 µg/mL and 7051 µg/mL respectively. The fractions produced significant decrease (P < 0.05) in ALP levels only while ethyl acetate fraction caused a significant reduction in the value of only malondialdehyde. Both fractions also increased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD). HPLC-DAD analysis led to the detection of cinnamic acid, protocatechuic acid and two isoflavones daidzein and genistein. Further LC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of the isoflavones tectorigenin, 5-O-methylgenistein, and 5-O-methyltectorigenin, among other flavonoids, peonidin, 5-methylpeonidin, methylmalvidin and kaempferol-3-O-(2''galloyl)-glucopyranoside. The detected isoflavones and other flavonoids may contribute to the observed mild in vitro and good in vivo antioxidant activity of V. doniana fruit extract and fractions.


2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Hongxiu Zhang ◽  
Xiaoyan Xue ◽  
Jin Pan ◽  
Xiaobin Song ◽  
Xing Chang ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Lily Bulb and Rehmannia Decoction (LBRD), is a traditional Chinese formula that has been shown to be safe and effective against depression; however, its material basis and pharmacological mechanisms remain unknown. Methods Here, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to identify the chemical spectrum and qualitatively identify the major active ingredients in the LBRD standard decoction, respectively. Subsequently, we assessed the behavior, neuronal function and morphology, neurotransmitter levels, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA)-axis associated hormones, inflammatory cytokine levels, and miRNA/mRNA expression alterations in an in vitro/vivo depression model treated by the LBRD standard decoction. Finally, miRNA/mRNA regulatory networks were created through bioinformatics analysis, followed by functional experiments to verify its role in LBRD standard decoction treatment. Results A total of 32 prototype compounds were identified in the LBRD standard decoction, and the average quality of verbascoside in the fresh lily bulb decoction, fresh raw Rehmannia juice, and the LBRD standard decoction were 0.001264%, 0.002767%, and 0.009046% (w/w), respectively. Administration of the LBRD standard decoction ameliorated chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression-like phenotypes and protected PC12 cells against chronic corticosterone (CORT)-induced injury. The levels of neurotransmitter, cytokine, stress hormones and neuronal morphology were disrupted in the depression model, while LBRD standard decoction could work on these alterations. After LBRD standard decoction administration, four differentially expressed miRNAs, rno-miR-144-3p, rno-miR-495, rno-miR-34c-5p, and rno-miR-24-3p, and six differentially expressed mRNAs, Calml4, Ntrk2, VGAT, Gad1, Nr1d1, and Bdnf overlapped in the in vivo/vitro depression model. Among them, miR-144-3p directly mediated GABA synthesis and release by targeting Gad1 and VGAT, and miR-495 negatively regulated BDNF expression. The LBRD standard decoction can reverse the above miRNA/mRNA network-mediated GABA and BDNF expression in the in vivo/vitro depression model. Conclusion Collectively, the multi-components of the LBRD standard decoction altered a series of miRNAs in depression through mediating GABAergic synapse, circadian rhythm, and neurotrophic signaling pathway etc., thereby abolishing inhibitory/excitatory neurotransmitter deficits, recovering the pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine levels and regulating the HPA-axis hormone secretion to achieve balance of the physiological function of the whole body.


2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (3(75)) ◽  
pp. 28-33
Author(s):  
Oleksandr Yu. Maslov ◽  
Mykola A. Komisarenko ◽  
Yulia S. Kolisnyk ◽  
Tatyana A. Kostina

Aim. To study the qualitative composition, the quantitative content of catechins in green tea leaves and compare the data obtained with those evaluated by spectrophotometry.Materials and methods. Green tea leaves used for the analysis were collected in Anhui Province, China. The extract for the HPLC analysis was obtained by the maceration method with 60 % ethanol twice in the raw material/extractant ratio of 1 : 20. In the case of the spectrophotometric analysis, green tea leaves were extracted with 70 % ethanol twice by the maceration method in the raw material/extractant ratio of 1 : 20. The analysis of the extract from green tea leaves was performed by high performance liquid chromatography using a Prominence LC-20 Shimadzu chromatographic system (Japan) with a SPD-20AV spectrophotometric detector, an Agilent Technologies Microsorb-MV-150 column (reversed phase, C18 modified silica gel, length – 150 mm, diameter – 4.6 mm, particles size – 5 μm). Substances in the extract were identified by comparing the retention time and the spectral characteristics of the test substances with the same characteristics of the reference standards. Spectrophotometric measurements were carried out using a UV-1000 single beam spectrophotometer (China) with the pair of S90-309Q quartz square cells.Results and discussion. Using high performance liquid chromatography 5 catechins were identified. Among them epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (10.85 %) predominated, while catechin (0.61 %) had the lowest concentration. The total amount of catechins in green tea leaves was 30.56 and 24.79 % by HPLC and spectrophotometry, respectively. The F- and t-tests showed that there was no significant difference between the results of HPLC and spectrophotometry.Conclusions. The qualitative composition and the quantitative content of catechins have been determined in the extract from green tea leaves by high performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry. Both HPLC and spectrophotometric methods can be used to determine the total catechin content in green tea leaves. The high content of catechins makes the extract promising for further study and creation of new herbal medicinal products and dietary supplements. The results obtained will be used for standardization of green tea leaves and for future pharmacological research of its extract.


Food Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (5) ◽  
pp. 220-225
Author(s):  
K.K. Mulyono ◽  
D. Widianto ◽  
T.D. Wahyuningsih ◽  
R. Pratiwi ◽  
W. Widodo

Coconut neera is a translucent liquid sap that comprises sugar, fat, minerals, vitamins, and proteins, which render it a suitable substrate for microbial growth. The objective of this study is to observe the survival of Lactobacillus casei AP and Lactobacillus plantarum strains in coconut neera along with their ability to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The survival test was conducted by measuring the total plate count, and SCFAs were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Lactobacillus casei AP and L. plantarum could grow in the neera from about 6 log CFU/mL to up to 7.86 and 6.40 log CFU/mL after 9 hrs of inoculation, respectively. Additionally, they can survive at 4°C in storage for 14 days. These Lactobacillus strains could produce SCFAs in the form of butyrate. Therefore, the inoculation process of Lactobacillus strains can present an alternative to developing new functional beverages from coconut neera.


Metabolites ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 710
Author(s):  
Maryam Yousefi-Taemeh ◽  
Jie Lin ◽  
Demian Ifa ◽  
Wayne Parrott ◽  
Nik Kovinich

Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) E and M are major soybean alleles that confer resistance to leaf-chewing insects, and are particularly effective in combination. Flavonoids and/or isoflavonoids are classes of plant secondary metabolites that previous studies agree are the causative agents of resistance of these QTLs. However, all previous studies have compared soybean genotypes that are of dissimilar genetic backgrounds, leaving it questionable what metabolites are a result of the QTL rather than the genetic background. Here, we conducted a non-targeted mass spectrometry approach without liquid chromatography to identify differences in metabolite levels among QTLs E, M, and both (EM) that were introgressed into the background of the susceptible variety Benning. Our results found that E and M mainly confer low-level, global differences in distinct sets of metabolites. The isoflavonoid daidzein was the only metabolite that demonstrated major increases, specifically in insect-treated M and EM. Interestingly, M confers increased daidzein levels in response to insect, whereas E restores M’s depleted daidzein levels in the absence of insect. Since daidzein levels do not parallel levels of resistance, our data suggest a novel mechanism that the QTLs confer resistance to insects by mediating changes in hundreds of metabolites, which would be difficult for the insect to evolve tolerance. Collective global metabolite differences conferred by E and M might explain the increased resistance of EM.


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