methanolic extract
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
A. Hussain ◽  
I. Ilahi ◽  
H. Ahmed ◽  
S. Niaz ◽  
Z. Masood ◽  
...  

Abstract Being vector of West Nile Virus and falariasis the control of Culex quinquefasciatus is likely to be essential. Synthetic insecticide treatment is looking most effective for vectors mosquito control. However, these products are toxic to the environment and non-target organisms. Consequently, ecofriendly control of vectors mosquito is needed. In this regard botanical insecticide is looking more fruitful. Therefore, the present research aimed to investigate the effectiveness of methanolic extract and various fractions, including, n-hexane, ethyl-acetate, chloroform, and aqueous fraction, obtained from methanolic extract of Ailanthus altissima, Artemisia scoparia, and Justicia adhatoda using separating funnel against larval, pupal, and adult stages of Culex quinquefasciatus. The larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations (31.25-1000 ppm) of methanolic extract and its fractions for 24 hours of exposure period. For knock-down bioassay (filter paper impregnation bioassay) different concentration of the methanolic extract and its various fractions (i.e. 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1mg/mL) were applied for 1 hour exposure period. The results were statistically analysed using standard deviation, probit analysis, and linear regression. The R2 values of larvae, pupae, and adult range from 0.4 to 0.99. The values of LC50 (concentration causing 50% mortality) for late 3rd instar larvae after 24 hours exposure period range from 93-1856.7 ppm, while LC90 values range from 424 -7635.5ppm. The values of LC50for pupae range form 1326.7-6818.4ppm and and values of LC90 range from 3667.3-17427.9ppm, respectively. The KDT50 range from 0.30 to 2.8% and KDT90 values range from1.2 to 110.8%, respectively. In conclusion, Justicia adhatoda may be effective for controlling populations of vector mosquito.


2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
M.S. Mahmood ◽  
A. Ashraf ◽  
S. Ali ◽  
A.B. Siddique ◽  
F. Asad ◽  
...  

Abstract Increasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These infections can be life-threatening to young children and the elderly. There is an incentive to find alternative control measures, such as plant and herbal extracts, especially in lesser-developed countries where traditional antibiotics may not be readily available.


2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
Author(s):  
B. Khan ◽  
A. Ullah ◽  
M.A. Khan ◽  
A. Amin ◽  
M. Iqbal ◽  
...  

Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM), an endocrine syndrome characterized by high blood glucose levels due to abrogated insulin activity. The existing treatments for DM have side effects and varying degrees of efficacy. Therefore, it is paramount that novel approaches be developed to enhance the management of DM. Therapeutic plants have been accredited as having comparatively high efficacy with fewer adverse effects. The current study aims to elucidate the phytochemical profile, anti-hyperlipidemic, and anti-diabetic effects of methanolic extract D. salicifolia (leaves) in Alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Alloxan was injected intraperitoneally (150 mg kg-1, b.w), to induced diabetes in mice. The mice were divided into three groups (n=10). Group 1 (normal control) received normal food and purified water, Group II (diabetic control) received regular feed and clean water and group III (diabetic treated) received a methanolic extract of the plant (300 mg kg-1) for 28 days with a typical diet and clean water throughout the experiment. Blood samples were collected to checked serum glucose and concentration of LDL, TC, TG. The extract demonstrated significant antihyperglycemic activity (P<0.05), whereas improvements in mice's body weight and lipid profiles were observed after treatment with the extract. This study establishes that the extract has high efficacy with comparatively less toxicity that can be used for DM management.


2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
Author(s):  
B. Padayachee ◽  
F. Odun-Ayo ◽  
L. Reddy

Abstract Bulbine natalensis and Chorophytum comosum are potential medicinal source for the treatment of cancers. Chronic myeloid leukaemia is a hematopoietic stem cells disorder treated by tyrosine kinase inhibitors but often cause recurrence of the leukaemia after cessation of therapy, hence require alternative treatment. This study determines the anti-cancer effect of leaf, root and bulb methanolic and aqueous extracts of B. natalensis and C. comosum in chronic human myelogenous leukaemia (K562) cell line by MTT, Hoechst bis-benzimide nuclear and annexin V stain assays. The root methanolic extract of B. natalensis and C. comosum showed a high cytotoxicity of 8.6% and 16.7% respectively on the K562 cell line at 1,000 μg/ml concentration. Morphological loss of cell membrane integrity causing degradation of the cell and fragmentation were observed in the root methanolic extract of both plants. A high apoptosis (p < 0.0001) was induced in the K562 cells by both leaf and root extracts of the C. comosum compared to the B. natalensis. This study shows both plants possess apoptotic effect against in vitro myelogenous leukaemia which contributes to the overall anti-cancer properties of B. natalensis and C. comosum to justify future therapeutic applications against chronic myelogenous leukaemia blood cancer.


Author(s):  
Zahir Shah ◽  
Syed Lal Badshah ◽  
Arshad Iqbal ◽  
Zamarud Shah ◽  
Abdul-Hamid Emwas ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Freshwater macroalgae possess a number of important secondary metabolites. They are an unexplored source of medicinal compounds. In this study, three freshwater macroalgae—Chara vulgaris, Cladophora glomerata and Spirogyra crassa—were collected from the river Swat and the river Kabul in the Charsadda district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. To assess the role of freshwater macroalgae in agriculture, various experiments were performed on their extracts. Methanolic extract of the three macroalgae were first analyzed through gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) for the presence of important medicinal secondary metabolites. The methanol based macroalgae extracts were tested for antibacterial, insecticidal, cytotoxic and phytotoxic activities. Results Initially, the algae were dried, crushed and treated with methanol for the extraction of secondary metabolites. The GC–MS results contained several important long chain fatty acids and other related long-chain hydrocarbons, such as alkanes and alkenes. Several benzene derivatives were also detected during the course of the investigation. Several of these compounds have established roles in the treatment of human ailments and can be supplied to farm animals. For example, phenylephrine is a decongestant, dilates pupils, increases blood pressure and helps in relieving hemorrhoids. Hexahydropseudoionone has uses in perfumes and other cosmetics. Several essential oils were also detected in the methanolic extract of the three macroalgae that can be utilized in various industrial products. Bioassays showed that these algal extracts—especially the Spirogyra sp. extract—contain moderate to maximum bioactivity. Conclusions Macroalgae possess important secondary metabolites with medicinal properties. These secondary metabolites can be used as biopesticides, plant growth enhancers, and remedies for various diseases in farm animals and for the control of weeds. They can be further explored for isolation and purification of useful biochemical compounds. Graphical Abstract


Author(s):  
Shiny Joy ◽  
P. Eswara Prasad ◽  
K. Padmaja ◽  
K. Adilaxamamma ◽  
V. Chengalva Rayulu ◽  
...  

Background: A study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and immunological profile of methanolic extract of Adhatoda vasica leaves (AVE) in naturally infected sheep with gastrointestinal nematodes and compared with commonly used anthelmintic albendazole in sheep. Methods: Fifty four sheep found positive for gastrointestinal nematodes were divided into 3 equal groups, GI (infected-untreated: control), GII (infected- AVE treated) and GIII (infected- albendazole treated). Blood samples were drawn on 5th and 14th day after treatment for analysis of oxidative stress markers such as TBARS, TAC, SOD and catalase and immunological parameters such as total immunoglobulin, IgG and IL-10. Result: Helminthiasis in sheep cause a considerable oxidative stress. The anthelmintic activity of Adhatoda vasica surpassed the conventional synthetic drug albendazole in sheep in terms of oxidative and immunological changes in blood.


Author(s):  
Harini R ◽  
Chandramohan A

The escalating problem of obesity has become a cause of great concern in the world today as it leads to adverse effects on human health, including cardiovascular diseases, cancer etc. The major causes of obesity may be attributed to sedentary lifestyle and bad food habits. Conventional modalities to tackle obesity are not free from side-effects. Urgency of a novel, nontoxic means needs to be developed to control obesity. In this study we aim to screen the phytochemical compounds of Camellia Sinensis and evaluate its antiobesity and antioxidant effects. The methanolic extract of Camellia Sinensis was analyzed for its phytochemical screening and assayed for its in-vitro activity against pancreatic lipase, its antioxidant potential and quantitative estimation of flavonoids and phenolics were done. The methanolic extract of Camellia Sinensis strongly inhibited pancreatic lipase by 63% and it also possesses a strong antioxidant effect and there was a significant positive correlation between phenolics, flavonoids and with alkaloid contents. From these results, it could be concluded that methanolic extracts of Camellia Sinensis possesses antipancreatic lipase compounds. It also possesses antioxidant effect. It is suggested that the phytochemical compounds from there plants may be applied for the prevention and treatment of obesity or hyperlipidemia. Keywords: Obesity, Camellia Sinensis, Pancreatic lipase, Antioxidant, Phenolic


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (6) ◽  
pp. 768-774
Author(s):  
Pankaj Kushwaha ◽  
Shashi Alok ◽  
Lavkush Dwivedi

Chlorophytum borivilianum (Safed Musli), a member of the Liliaceae family is a well-known plant in India for its aphrodisiac and adaptogenic activities. The present study was carried out to identify the novel compounds based new medicinal properties of the plant. The preliminary phytochemical screening and GC-MS based chromatographic analysis of a methanolic extract of C. borivilianum (MECB) tubors resulted the detection of Phenol, Tannins, Flavo-noids, Alkaloids, Saponins, and Glycosides in the plant. In GC-MS analysis of the MECB, more than 200 compounds were identified in different peak are-as. All of them were crosschecked at various online compound databses like PubChem, Drugbank, etc. for the identification of their known biological ac-tivities, if any. Out of them, mainly 21 compounds (falling in 70.74% peak area) like 4-mercaptophenol, 1,4-Benzenediol, 2-methoxy-, Octadecanal, Pentadecanal, 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, Betulin, Levomenthol, etc. were characterized in this study. As per their reported medicinal activities at standard databases the plant tubor is hereby reported to have anti-microbial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-neoplastic, anti-pruritic, anti-tussive and anti-spasmodic activites. Moreover, the compounds like Cyclo-hexanol, 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl), Palmitoyl Chloride, Triarachine, Phytol, 4-mercaptophenol with their mentholating, food additives and other valua-ble effects have underlined the industrial value of the plant.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Paulo Cumbane ◽  
Abrão Estivila ◽  
Isabel Magaia

Reactive species, such as the free radicals produced during cell metabolism, are described as the main cause of oxidative stress, a process responsible for the development of degenerative diseases. Thus, the investigation of natural products containing chemical components with antioxidant capacity becomes necessary, since the frequent ingestion of these products may prevent the occurrence of this adverse event. In this perspective, total phenols (<b>TPC</b>) and total flavonoids (<b>TFC</b>) of the crude methanolic extract (<b>MCE</b>) and ethyl acetate fraction (<b>EAF</b>) obtained from <i>Gladiolus dalenii</i> bulbs were quantified and their antioxidant capacity evaluated and compared with that of gallic acid (<b>GA</b>), tannic acid (<b>TA</b>), pyrogallol (<b>PyG</b>), n-propyl gallate (<b>nPG</b>), quercetin (<b>Qtn</b>), rutin (<b>Rut</b>), butylated hydroxytoluene (<b>BHT</b>), 6-hydroxy-2,5,7-tetramethyl-chroman-2-carboxylic acid (<b>Trolox</b>) and ascorbic acid (<b>Asc)</b> using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydroxyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method. The study revealed that the antioxidant activity of <b>MCE</b> (EC<sub>50</sub>=6.550 ± 0.31 µg/mL) and <b>EAF</b> (EC<sub>50</sub>=5.960 ± 0.61 µg/mL) was higher effect than <b>Rut</b> (EC<sub>50</sub>=9.110 ± 0.04 µg/mL) and <b>BHT</b> (EC<sub>50</sub>=11.18 ± 0.03 µg/mL), and in turn lower than that of the other substances analyzed. The antioxidant activity found for <i>G. dalenii</i> extracts may be due to the high level of TPC found in this species.


2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
Author(s):  
Gboyega Oluwaseun Oyeleke ◽  
Ibraheem Abimbade Abdulazeez ◽  
Ajisola Agnes Adebisi ◽  
Kehinde Nasiru Oyekanmi ◽  
Segun Olaitan Akinbode

Three solvents of different polarities (water, methanol and 1% NaOHsolution) were used to extract dyes that produced different shades fromdried sunflower (Helianthus annuus) petal. The extraction proceduresusing different solvent types were carried out separately. The dye extractswere thereafter subjected to Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry(FT-IR) analysis for characterization in terms of functional groups. Theintensities of the extracted dyes on the shade of colours obtained on piecesof cotton material varied from yellow in methanolic extract to light yellowin aqueous and black in 1% NaOH solution extracts. The results obtainedfrom the FT-IR analysis revealed the presence of several useful functionalgroups such as N-H, C=H, O-H and C=O in the extracts.


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