punica granatum
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
M.S. Mahmood ◽  
A. Ashraf ◽  
S. Ali ◽  
A.B. Siddique ◽  
F. Asad ◽  
...  

Abstract Increasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These infections can be life-threatening to young children and the elderly. There is an incentive to find alternative control measures, such as plant and herbal extracts, especially in lesser-developed countries where traditional antibiotics may not be readily available.


Author(s):  
Akanksha Awasthi ◽  
Mamta F. Singh ◽  
Saurabh Sharma

Background: Phytoestrogens have recently become a hot topic among scientists. Phytoestrogens’ estrogen-like properties have led to their widespread use in the reproductive system. The aim of this research was to see whether the ethanolic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae, Trichosanthes dioica and Punica granatum had any estrogenic activity in female wistar rats. Methods: In female wistar rats, the estrogenic effect was studied using a uterotropic assay, vaginal cytology and vaginal opening. In ovariectomized immature and mature female wistar rats, a 400 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) dose of ethanolic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae, Trichosanthes dioica and Punica granatum was given. Result: When compared to ovariectomized control rats, the uterine wet weight increased significantly. The estrogen-treated rats had only cornified epithelial cells, indicating the existence of oestrogen, as well as 100% vaginal opening. At 400 mg/kg b.w., the ethanolic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae, Trichosanthes dioica and Punica granatum demonstrated promising estrogenic activity, as evidenced by uterotropic assays, vaginal opening measurements and histopathological changes. As a result of this research, it’s possible to infer that the ethanolic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae, Trichosanthes dioica and Punica granatum play an important role in estrogenic activity in female rats.


PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12814
Author(s):  
Longbo Liu ◽  
Jie Zheng

Background Sucrose synthase (SUS, EC 2.4.1.13) is one of the major enzymes of sucrose metabolism in higher plants. It has been associated with C allocation, biomass accumulation, and sink strength. The SUS gene families have been broadly explored and characterized in a number of plants. The pomegranate (Punica granatum) genome is known, however, it lacks a comprehensive study on its SUS genes family. Methods PgSUS genes were identified from the pomegranate genome using a genome-wide search method. The PgSUS gene family was comprehensively analyzed by physicochemical properties, evolutionary relationship, gene structure, conserved motifs and domains, protein structure, syntenic relationships, and cis-acting elements using bioinformatics methods. The expression pattern of the PgSUS gene in different organs and fruit development stages were assayed with RNA-seq obtained from the NCBI SRA database as well as real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results Five pomegranate SUS genes, located on four different chromosomes, were divided into three subgroupsaccording to the classification of other seven species. The PgSUS family was found to be highly conserved during evolution after studying the gene structure, motifs, and domain analysis. Furthermore, the predicted PgSUS proteins showed similar secondary and tertiary structures. Syntenic analysis demonstrated that four PgSUS genes showed syntenic relationships with four species, with the exception of PgSUS2. Predictive promoter analysis indicated that PgSUS genes may be responsive to light, hormone signaling, and stress stimulation. RNA-seq analysis revealed that PgSUS1/3/4 were highly expressed in sink organs, including the root, flower, and fruit, and particularly in the outer seed coats. qPCR analysis showed also that PgSUS1, PgSUS3, and PgSUS4 were remarkably expressed during fruit seed coat development. Our results provide a systematic overview of the PgSUS gene family in pomegranate, developing the framework for further research and use of functional PgSUS genes.


Author(s):  
Emine Açar ◽  
Melike Cengiz ◽  
Yıldız Aka Kaçar ◽  
Ahsen Işık Özgüven

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a tropical and subtropical climate plant with high economic value and nutritional content. Having valuable phytochemicals in terms of health caused an increase in demand for pomegranate consumption and this situation accelerated pomegranate production. However, global warming and climate changes are among the factors limiting the production of pomegranate. Especially abiotic stress factors caused by adverse ecological conditions cause significant economic losses in pomegranate production. Drought stress, which is one of these negativities, causes fruit cracking problem, which is one of the important problems in pomegranate production. Minimizing the fruit cracking problem, which causes economic losses, is possible by breeding varieties that are resistant to under non-irrigated conditions. Determining the resistance of the cultivars to be used in breeding programs against fruit cracking will allow the development of elite cultivars. For this purpose, it was aimed to determine the fruit cracking rates of 30 different pomegranate genotypes in the Pomegranate Genetic Collection of Çukurova University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, under non-irrigated conditions. A correlation was made between the cracking rates of the genotypes and the amount of soluble solids content (SSC). According to the correlation analysis between the cultivars, there is no statistically significant difference between the SSC and the cracking rate. However, a weak negative correlation was determined between SSC-cracking rate (-0,1132). In the light of the pomological data obtained, it was determined that 8 pomegranate genotypes grown under non-irrigated conditions had a fruit cracking rate of 40 % - 85 %, cracking rates were below 10 % in 8 pomegranate genotypes and no fruit cracking was observed in 6 genotypes. As a result of the analysis, it was observed that drought stress was effective on the fruit cracking rate or the exacerbation of the fruit cracking rate, but the resistance level of some genotypes against the fruit cracking problem was high.


Author(s):  
Jonas Sommer ◽  
Andreas Kunzmann ◽  
Lara E. Stuthmann ◽  
Karin Springer

AbstractThe interest in edible sea grapes (Caulerpa lentillifera) is increasing due to their potentially beneficial effect on human health. This macroalga, already used for direct and indirect human consumption, is grown in aquacultures in Vietnam and The Philippines. Here, the edible fronds of sea grapes were examined for their antioxidant activity (AOA) at light intensities from 140 to 300 µmol photons m−2 s−1 and compared to commercially dehydrated C. lentillifera and the renowned highly antioxidative fruits Pomegranates (Punica granatum), Goji (Lycium barbarum and L. chinense) and Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) berries, using an ABTS+-assay for all samples. AOA of fronds exposed to 300 µmol photons m−2 s−1 for 14 days increased by about 320% from the initial value of 72.2 ± 5.6 to 232.2 ± 34.2 Trolox Equivalents (TE) mmol 100 g−1 dry weight (DW) onto the level of Pomegranates (272.8 ± 23.0 TE mmol 100 g−1 DW). This application could be used as a post-cultivation treatment in sea grape cultures to increase the quality and nutritional value of the product.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (6) ◽  
pp. 1-5
Author(s):  
Megha Patel ◽  
Bhavesh Sharma

Bacteria, influenza, parasites and fungi are pathogenic microorganisms that cause infectious diseases. Diseases can spread from one individual to another, either directly or indirectly. Infectious diseases are world’s second most common cause of death. Rainforest plants provide about quarter of drugs we need. Scientific research has been carried out on few medicinal plants, but only to small degree. Bacterial susceptibility to currently active antibiotics has necessitated discovery of new antibacterial agents. Several plants are widely used as herbal medicine for treatment of infectious diseases in rural and backward areas of India. This chapter looks over the publications on medicinal plants that are used to cure diseases like malaria, pneumonia. Traditional medicine is preferred primary health care system in many rural areas for variety of reasons, including its affordability and efficacy. The current study focused on existing medicinal plant literature, with ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology details being highlighted. All of examined plants showed potent action, supporting their conventional uses as well as their ability to cure common diseases. Curcuma longa L., Punica granatum L. and Justicia adhatoda L. were most widely used plant families for pneumonia therapy in research area (each with seven plants); of these, Curcuma longa L., Punica granatum L. and Justicia adhatoda L. had most inhibiting ability against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Ascorbic acid, curcumin, vasicine, piperine, quercetin, myricetin and gallic acid have all been derived from these plants and are said to have antibacterial properties. Although Himalayan region has wide range of ethnomedicinal plants used to treat pneumonia, research on in-vivo activity, toxicology, and mechanism of action is minimal. As result, in order to produce novel antibacterial drugs from studied plant species, thorough study of these aspects is needed.


Author(s):  
Faezeh Fathi ◽  
Samad N. Ebrahimi ◽  
David M. Pereira ◽  
Berta N. Estevinho ◽  
Fernando Rocha

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