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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
pp. 100140
Kevin Pacheco-Barrios ◽  
Alba Navarro-Flores ◽  
Alejandra Cardenas-Rojas ◽  
Paulo S. de Melo ◽  
Elif Uygur-Kucukseymen ◽  

Shu-Zhen Zhang ◽  
Long Xie ◽  
Zheng-Jun Shang

Background: Oral cancer (OC) is a common tumour that poses a threat to human health and imposes a heavy burden on countries. This study assessed the burden imposed by OC on the 10 most populous countries from 1990 to 2019 on the basis of gender, age and socio-demographic index. Methods: Data on incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALY) and corresponding age-standardised rates (ASR) for OC in the 10 most populous countries from 1990 to 2019 were derived from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Estimated annual percentage changes were calculated to assess the trends of morbidity, mortality and DALY. The indicator that served as a proxy for survival rate was the supplement of mortality-to-incidence ratio (SMIR) (1 − (M/I)). Results: The number of new cases, deaths and DALY have increased in all 10 countries in the past 30 years. Trends in age-standardised incidence rates (ASIR), age-standardised mortality rate (ASMR) and age-standardised DALY for OC in the 10 most populous countries varied. The SMIR increased in all countries, with most countries having an SMIR between 30% and 50%. In 2019, the United States had the highest SMIR at 76%, whereas Russia had the lowest at 21.7%. Incidence and mortality were close between male and female subjects in Japan, Indonesia, Mexico, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. The incidence and mortality in male subjects in the United States, Russia, China and Brazil were two or more times those of female subjects. Gender difference was highest among patients aged 40–69 years. Conclusion: Trends and gender differences in ASIR, ASMR and age-standardised DALY for OC vary in the 10 most populous countries. Government cancer programs are often expensive to run, especially in countries with large populations. Policy makers need to take these differences into account when formulating policies.

2022 ◽  
Zhuo Zhou ◽  
Guixing Xu ◽  
Liuyang Huang ◽  
Hao Tian ◽  

Review question / Objective: Is electroacupuncture a safe therapy for the treatment of depression? Is electroacupuncture effective for the treatment of depression, as compared with sham control, or conventional drugs? Condition being studied: Depression is a mood disorder that causes sufferers to feel sadness, decreased interest, guilt, self-blame, loss of energy, and experience sleep disorders such as insomnia. People suffering from depression even feel they have no way out and have suicidal thoughts. In the United States, the prevalence of a major depressive disorder is 16.2%1-3. The 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study identified major depression as the second leading cause of disability worldwide and a leading cause of the burden of suicide and ischaemic heart disease. At present, depression patients are mainly treated with antidepressants, but the efficacy is extremely unstable. Studies have shown that acupuncture can help improve symptoms in patients with depression, but these clinical studies have not been systematically evaluated, and further confirmation is needed to confirm the efficacy of electroacupuncture in treating depression.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Deepak Kumar Behera ◽  
Sanghamitra Mishra

Abstract Background This study aims to measure the burden of diarrhea in India and analyze the trend of mortality associated with it for the past 30 years. We also intend to find the prevailing etiology and risk factors associated with diarrheal mortality in India. Methods The study has used the latest round of Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study-2019. GBD data is available across age groups and gender-wise over the period from 1990 to 2019. The study has identified 13 etiologies for the cause of diarrhea deaths and 20 risk factors to analyze the burden of disease. Results Our study shows, childhood diarrhea has declined over the years significantly, yet contributes to a larger share of DALYs associated with the disease. Among all the death cases of Diarrhea, in 2019, the most prevalent disease-causing pathogen is found to be Campylobacter. But Adenovirus is the major contributor to childhood diarrheal deaths. Though the burden of diarrhea is declining over the period, still there is a need to progress the interventions to prevent and control diarrhea rapidly to avoid the huge number of deaths and disabilities experienced in India. Conclusions Consumption of safe and clean water, proper sanitation facility in every household, required nutrition intake by mother and child, safe breastfeeding and stool disposal practices and careful case management, rotavirus vaccination are some of the effective interventions to be implemented all over the country. Further, evidence-based policies should be made and implemented to sustain diarrhea prevention programs.

BMC Cancer ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Vanessa Gorasso ◽  
Geert Silversmit ◽  
Marc Arbyn ◽  
Astrid Cornez ◽  
Robby De Pauw ◽  

Abstract Background The importance of assessing and monitoring the health status of a population has grown in the last decades. Consistent and high quality data on the morbidity and mortality impact of a disease represent the key element for this assessment. Being increasingly used in global and national burden of diseases (BoD) studies, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) is an indicator that combines healthy life years lost due to living with disease (Years Lived with Disability; YLD) and due to dying prematurely (Years of Life Lost; YLL). As a step towards a comprehensive national burden of disease study, this study aims to estimate the non-fatal burden of cancer in Belgium using national data. Methods We estimated the Belgian cancer burden from 2004 to 2019 in terms of YLD, using national population-based cancer registry data and international disease models. We developed a microsimulation model to translate incidence- into prevalence-based estimates, and used expert elicitation to integrate the long-term impact of increased disability due to surgical treatment. Results The age-standardized non-fatal burden of cancer increased from 2004 to 2019 by 6 and 3% respectively for incidence- and prevalence-based YLDs. In 2019, in Belgium, breast cancer had the highest morbidity impact among women, followed by colorectal and non-melanoma skin cancer. Among men, prostate cancer had the highest morbidity impact, followed by colorectal and non-melanoma skin cancer. Between 2004 and 2019, non-melanoma skin cancer significantly increased for both sexes in terms of age-standardized incidence-based YLD per 100,000, from 49 to 111 for men and from 15 to 44 for women. Important decreases were seen for colorectal cancer for both sexes in terms of age-standardized incidence-based YLD per 100,000, from 105 to 84 for men and from 66 to 58 for women. Conclusions Breast and prostate cancers represent the greatest proportion of cancer morbidity, while for both sexes the morbidity burden of skin cancer has shown an important increase from 2004 onwards. Integrating the current study in the Belgian national burden of disease study will allow monitoring of the burden of cancer over time, highlighting new trends and assessing the impact of public health policies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Jianjun Bai ◽  
Yudi Zhao ◽  
Donghui Yang ◽  
Yudiyang Ma ◽  
Chuanhua Yu

Abstract Background As the emerging economies, the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) shared 61.58% of the global chronic respiratory diseases (CRD) deaths in 2017. This study aimed to assess the secular trends in CRD mortality and explore the effects of age, period, and cohort across main BRICS countries. Methods Data were obtained from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2019 and analyzed using the age-period-cohort (APC) model to estimate period and cohort effects between 1990 and 2019. The net drifts, local drifts, longitudinal age curves, period/cohort rate ratios (RRs) were obtained through the APC model. Results In 2019, the CRD deaths across the BRICS were 2.39 (95%UI 1.95 to 2.84) million, accounting for 60.07% of global CRD deaths. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma remained the leading causes of CRD deaths. The age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) have declined across the BRICS since 1990, with the most apparent decline in China. Meanwhile, the downward trends in CRD death counts were observed in China and Russia. The overall net drifts per year were obvious in China (-5.89%; -6.06% to -5.71%), and the local drift values were all below zero in all age groups for both sexes. The age effect of CRD presented increase with age, and the period and cohort RRs were following downward trends over time across countries. Similar trends were observed in COPD and asthma. The improvement of CRD mortality was the most obvious in China, especially in period and cohort effects. While South Africa showed the most rapid increase with age across all CRD categories, and the period and cohort effects were flat. Conclusions BRICS accounted for a large proportion of CRD deaths, with China and India alone contributing more than half of the global CRD deaths. However, the declines in ASMR and improvements of period and cohort effects have been observed in both sexes and all age groups across main BRICS countries. China stands out for its remarkable reduction in CRD mortality and its experience may help reduce the burden of CRD in developing countries.

2022 ◽  
Huilong Chen ◽  
Yuan Zhan ◽  
Jinxiang Zhang ◽  
Sheng Cheng ◽  
Yuhao Zhou ◽  

Abstract Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) poses a substantial socioeconomic burden and is becoming the fastest-growing driver of chronic liver disease, potentially accompanied by a poor prognosis. We aim to elucidate the global and regional epidemiologic changes in NAFLD during the past thirty years and explore the relevant causes. Methods Data on NAFLD incidence, prevalence, death, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. In addition, we also investigated the correlation between the NAFLD burden and the social development degree. Finally, the associations of the three common comorbidities with NAFLD were determined. Results Globally, the incidence and prevalence of NAFLD both increased drastically from 1990 to 2019, mainly affecting young adults. Meanwhile, the deaths and DALYs increased significantly as well, dominating the aged group. However, the overall age-standardized death rate (ASDR) and DALY rate presented decreasing trends. Moreover, the sociodemographic index (SDI) appeared to have obvious negative associations with the age-standardized prevalence rate (ASPR), ASDR and age-standardized DALYs, indicating a more serious NAFLD burden in less developed regions. Finally, we found that the incidence and prevalence of NAFLD were positively related to those of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), stroke and ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Conclusions NAFLD is leading to increasingly serious health challenges worldwide. Comprehensive acquisition of the epidemiologic pattern for NAFLD and the identification of high-risk comorbidities may help policy-makers and clinical physicians develop cost-effective prevention and control strategies, especially in countries with a high NAFLD burden.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
J. Hecker ◽  
K. Freijer ◽  
M. Hiligsmann ◽  
S. M. A. A. Evers

Abstract Background Little is known about the burden that overweight and obesity impose on Dutch society. The aim of this study is to examine this burden in terms of cost-of-illness and health-related quality of life. Method A bottom-up, prevalence-based burden of disease study from a societal perspective was performed. Cost-of-illness information including healthcare costs, patient and family costs, and other costs was obtained via the Treatment Inventory of Costs in Patients with psychiatric disorders (TiC-P) questionnaire. Health-related quality of life was assessed through the EuroQol (EQ-5D-5L) and the BODY-Q instruments. Non-parametric bootstrapping was applied to test for significant differences in costs. Subgroup analyses were performed on all outcomes. Results A total of 97 people with overweight and obesity completed the survey. Per respondent, mean healthcare costs were €2907, patient and family costs were €4037, and other costs were €4519, leading to a total societal cost of €11,463 per respondent per year. Total costs were significantly higher for respondents with obesity versus overweight and between low & intermediate versus highly educated respondents. The mean utility score of our population was 0.81. A significantly lower utility score was found for respondents with obesity in comparison with respondents with overweight. BODY-Q results show that respondents with obesity scored a significantly lower Rasch-score than did respondents with overweight in three scales. Respondents with a high education level and having paid work scored significantly higher Rasch-scores in two scales than did those with a low education level and without having paid work. The age group 19–29 have significantly higher Rasch-scores in three scales than respondents in the other two age categories. Conclusions Overweight and obesity have a considerable impact on the societal costs and on health-related quality of life. The results show that the impact of overweight and obesity go beyond the healthcare sector, as the other costs have the biggest share of the total costs. Another interesting finding of this study is that obesity leads to significant higher costs and lower health-related quality of life than overweight. These findings draw attention to policy making, as collective prevention and effective treatment are needed to reduce this burden.

2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
Ming Fu ◽  
Hongming Zhou ◽  
Yushi Li ◽  
Hai Jin ◽  
Xiqing Liu

Abstract Background Hip osteoarthritis is a common disabling condition of the hip joint and is associated with a substantial health burden. We assessed the epidemiological patterns of hip osteoarthritis from 1990 to 2019 by sex, age, and socio-demographic index (SDI). Methods Age-standardized rates (ASRs) were obtained for the incidence and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of hip osteoarthritis from 1990 to 2019 for 21 regions, encompassing a total of 204 countries and territories. The estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) of ASRs were calculated to evaluate the trends in the incidence and DALYs of hip osteoarthritis over these 30 years. Results Globally, from 1990 to 2019, the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) of hip osteoarthritis increased from 17.02 per 100,000 persons to 18.70 per 100,000 persons, with an upward trend in the EAPC of 0.32 (0.29–0.34), whereas the age-standardized DALY rate increased from 11.54 per 100,000 persons to 12.57 per 100,000 persons, with an EAPC of 0.29 (0.27–0.32). In 2019, the EAPCs of the ASIR and age-standardized DALY rate of hip osteoarthritis were positively associated with the SDI of hip osteoarthritis. In 1990 and 2019, the incidence of hip osteoarthritis was unimodally distributed across different age groups, with a peak incidence in the 60–64-year-old age group, whereas the DALYs increased with age. Conclusions The incidence and DALYs of hip osteoarthritis have been increasing globally. The EAPCs of the ASIR and age-standardized DALY rate were particularly significant in developed regions and varied across nations and regions, indicating the urgent need for governments and medical institutions to increase the awareness regarding risk factors, consequences of hip osteoarthritis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 35 ◽  
pp. 37-46
Jacob Lang ◽  
Aparna Narendrula ◽  
Ahmed El-Zawahry ◽  
Puneet Sindhwani ◽  
Obi Ekwenna

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