major depressive
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Khalid Saad Alharbi

Abstract Desvenlafaxine succinate (DVS) inhibits serotonin reuptake selectively and is approved for major depressive disorders. This research investigated influence of DVS on modulating brain monoamine and oxidative stress in mice. The antiepileptic potential of DVS (10, 20, or 30 mg/kg/i.p.) in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 85 mg/kg) with i.p. route of administration, strychnine (STR; 75 mg/kg) with i.p. route, pilocarpine (400 mg/kg) with s.c. route and maximal electroshock MES-induced convulsion in mouse models. The activities of oxidative stress, i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) as well as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brains of PTZ-induced convulsive mice. Treatment with DVS increased the latency to develop siezures and declined mortalities in rodents against PTZ, STR and pilocarpine-induced convulsions. Results of MES-leaded siezures revealed that DVS reduced tonic hind limb extension duration and mortalities significantly. Brain, SOD, GSH and GABA level were significantly (P<0.01) increased and LPO reduced significantly (P<0.01) after DVS treatment. Furthermore, the DVS did not show any motor coordination signs in the rotarod test. We demonstrated that the role of DVS in convulsion genesis in mice under control condition and attenuate the PTZ-induced oxidative damage.

2022 ◽  
Vol 299 ◽  
pp. 207-214
Lipeng Ning ◽  
Yogesh Rathi ◽  
Tracy Barbour ◽  
Nikos Makris ◽  
Joan A. Camprodon

2022 ◽  
Sourav Dakua

The aim of this ‘literature review’-based argumentative paper has been to find out the risks of developing psychotic and depressive disorders in patients having been treated with antidepressants. In order to reach a resounding supposition, this literature review-based argumentative study had taken an incisive look into previous research works and meta-analysis, which in effect had underscored the risks of antidepressant-induced psychotic and depressive disorders in patients with depression as well as psychosis even as the protagonists of antidepressant drug classes could not be undermined given their upscaled magnitude of benefits. While following a probing interpretation of past studies, this might be demystified that antidepressants could lead to psychotic events and depressive disorders in patients of all age groups with children and young adults being more susceptible to develop psychosis. The psychotic episodes could even be developed during initial phase of treatments in patients suffering from depressive and psychotic disorders such as bipolar mood disorder, unipolar depression, major depressive disorders, mania, OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder), delusional depression (psychotic depression), schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorders alongside multiple somatic symptoms among others as well. Concomitantly, with efficaciousness of antidepressants in major depressive disorder still remaining a subject to utter dubitability, different antidepressant drug classes were found to be associated with a considerable scale of adverse effects after carrying out protracted arguments on findings of evidence-based past studies, meta-analysis of previous researches and relevant clinical cases. Therefore, following a systematized approach towards past studies, this argumentative research has reached a coherent conclusion that antidepressants are likely to cause psychotic events and exaggeration of depressive disorders up to some extent in several cases. Hence, there is a stipulation of individual risk-benefit assessment and intricate history taking in patients being contemplated for antidepressant drugs alongside a close observation and follow-up in patients of all age groups after introducing antidepressant medications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 112
Benjamin C. Gibson ◽  
Andrei Vakhtin ◽  
Vincent P. Clark ◽  
Christopher C. Abbott ◽  
Davin K. Quinn

Hemispheric differences in emotional processing have been observed for over half a century, leading to multiple theories classifying differing roles for the right and left hemisphere in emotional processing. Conventional acceptance of these theories has had lasting clinical implications for the treatment of mood disorders. The theory that the left hemisphere is broadly associated with positively valenced emotions, while the right hemisphere is broadly associated with negatively valenced emotions, drove the initial application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Subsequent rTMS research has led to improved response rates while adhering to the same initial paradigm of administering excitatory rTMS to the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) and inhibitory rTMS to the right PFC. However, accumulating evidence points to greater similarities in emotional regulation between the hemispheres than previously theorized, with potential implications for how rTMS for MDD may be delivered and optimized in the near future. This review will catalog the range of measurement modalities that have been used to explore and describe hemispheric differences, and highlight evidence that updates and advances knowledge of TMS targeting and parameter selection. Future directions for research are proposed that may advance precision medicine and improve efficacy of TMS for MDD.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Kasumi Yasuda ◽  
Shinichi Yamada ◽  
Shinya Uenishi ◽  
Natsuko Ikeda ◽  
Atsushi Tamaki ◽  

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> The hippocampus is relevant to cognitive function in schizophrenia (SCZ) and mood disorder patients. Although not anatomically uniform, it is clearly divided into subfields. This study aimed to elucidate the relationship between hippocampal subfield volume and cognitive function in patients with SCZ, bipolar disorder (BP), and major depressive disorder (MDD). <b><i>Methods:</i></b> The study included 21 patients with SCZ, 22 with BP, and 21 with MDD and 25 healthy controls (HCs). Neurocognitive function was assessed using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia. We obtained hippocampal subfield volumes using FreeSurfer 6.0. We compared the volumes of the hippocampal subfield between the 4 groups and ascertained correlation between the cognitive composite score and hippocampal subfield volume in each group. <b><i>Results:</i></b> The SCZ group had significantly lower cognitive composite score than the BP, MDD, and HC groups. In the SCZ group, the left and right hippocampus-amygdala transition area and right subiculum and right presubiculum volumes were significantly reduced compared to those in the HC group. The left presubiculum volumes in the SCZ group were significantly reduced compared to those in the MDD group. Subfield volumes did not significantly differ between the BP, MDD, and HC groups. Interestingly, in the SCZ group, volumes of the right CA1, right molecular layer of the hippocampus, and right granule cell and molecular layer of the dentate gyrus were significantly correlated with the cognitive composite score. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Patients with SCZ had poorer cognitive function, which is related to their hippocampal pathology, than those with mood disorders.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Ximena Moreno ◽  
Jean Gajardo ◽  
María José Monsalves

Abstract Background Different factors are associated with late life depression and diagnosis, including gender. It has also been reported that depression among older people is underdiagnosed. As a result, the mental health needs of this group are insufficiently met. The aim of this study was to explore gender differences in the factors associated with positive screens for depression and self-reported diagnosis among older adults in Chile. Methods Data from 3786 older adults who participated in the Social Protection Survey in 2016 were analysed. PHQ-9 was used to identify screen-positive cases. Self-reported diagnosis of depression was used to determine the proportion of people with a screen-positive result who had received a diagnosis of depression. Logistic regression models were used to determine sociodemographic and health factors associated with depression and underdiagnosis in older men and women. Results The prevalence of a screen-positive result was 20.91% (5.83% major depressive disorder) among men, and 36.38% (12.43% major depressive disorder) among women. 18.77% of men and 34.11% of women with a positive depression screening had received a diagnosis. More educated men were more likely to receive a diagnosis. Older age was associated with a lower probability of diagnosis among older women. Conclusions Our results suggest that depressive disorders are undiagnosed in a high proportion of older adults in Chile. Gender is a relevant factor in the underdiagnosis of depression in this group. Further research is needed to understand the factors involved in these gaps, to improve detection and provide timely support and treatment.

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