incidence and mortality
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
R. Ejaz ◽  
M. T. Ashraf ◽  
S. Qadeer ◽  
M. Irfan ◽  
A. Azam ◽  
...  

Abstract COVID-19 is reported as an extremely contagious disease with common symptoms of fever, dry cough, sore throat, and tiredness. The published literature on incidence and gender-wise prevalence of COVID-19 is scarce in Pakistan. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare the distribution, incubation period and mortality rate of COVID-19 among the male and female population of district Attock. The data were collected between 01 April 2020 and 07 December 2020 from the population of district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 22,962 individuals were screened and 843 were found positive for RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2. The confirmed positive cases were monitored carefully. Among the positive cases, the incidence of COVID-19 was 61.7% among males and 38.2% among females. The average recovery period of males was 18.89±7.75 days and females were 19±8.40 days from SARS-CoV-2. The overall mortality rate was 8.06%. The death rate of male patients was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to female patients. Also, the mortality rate was higher (P<0.05) in male patients of 40-60 years of age compared to female patients of the same age group. Moreover, the mortality rate significantly increased (P<0.05) with the increase of age irrespective of gender. In conclusion, the incidence and mortality rate of COVID-19 is higher in males compared to the female population. Moreover, irrespective of gender the mortality rate was significantly lower among patients aged <40 years.


2022 ◽  
Vol 77 ◽  
pp. 102093
Author(s):  
Thanya Pathirana ◽  
Rehan Sequeira ◽  
Chris Del Mar ◽  
James A. Dickinson ◽  
Bruce K. Armstrong ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 76 ◽  
pp. 102057
Author(s):  
Arthur Sillah ◽  
Nathaniel F. Watson ◽  
Ulrike Peters ◽  
Mary L. Biggs ◽  
F. Javier Nieto ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
Povilas Kavaliauskas ◽  
Audrius Dulskas ◽  
Inga Kildusiene ◽  
Rokas Arlauskas ◽  
Rimantas Stukas ◽  
...  

Background: Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide, and its incidence is increasing. The aim of this study was to examine the time trends in the incidence and mortality rates of pancreatic cancer for the period of 1998–2015 for the first time in Lithuania by sex, age, subsite, and stage. Methods: This study was based on all cases (deaths) of pancreatic cancer diagnosed between 1998 and 2015. Age-standardized incidence (mortality) rates and group-specific rates were calculated for each sex using the direct method (European Standard). TNM classification-based information reported to the cancer registry was grouped into three categories: (1) localized cancer: T1-3/N0/M0; (2) cancer with regional metastasis: any 1-3/N+/M0; (3) advanced cancer: any T/any N/M+. Joinpoint regression was used to provide annual percentage changes (APCs) and to detect points in time where statistically significant changes in the trends occurred. Results: Overall, 8514 pancreatic cancer cases (4364 in men and 3150 in women) were diagnosed and 7684 persons died from cancer of the pancreas. Pancreatic cancer incidence rates were considerably lower for women than for men, with a female:male ratio of 1:2. Incidence rates changed during the study period from 14.2 in 1998 to 15.0/100,000 in the year 2015 in men, and from 6.7 to 9.8/100,000 in women. Incidence rates over the study period were stable for men (APC = 0.1%) and increasing for women by 1.1% per year. Similarly, mortality rates increased in women by 0.9% per year, and were stable in men. During the study period, incidence and mortality rates of pancreatic cancer were close. For the entire study period, rates increased significantly in the 50–74 years age group; only cancer of the head of pancreas showed a decline by 0.9%, while tail and not-specified pancreatic cancer incidence increased by 11.4% and 4.51%, respectively. Conclusions: The increasing pancreatic cancer incidence trend in the Lithuanian population may be related to the prevalence of its main risk factors (smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, diet, and diabetes).


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xuan Zhang ◽  
Tao Wu ◽  
Rong Ding ◽  
Rujia Qin ◽  
Yongchun Zhou ◽  
...  

Abstract Preceding studies have identified that noncoding RNA plays a significant role in the occurrence and development of tumors. Colorectal cancer (CRC) has attracted increasing attention due to its high incidence and mortality rate. Based on Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database analysis, it was found that compared with normal tissues, HNF1A-AS1 and INHBA were highly expressed in CRC tissues; miR-214 was relatively low expressed, and it is predicted to specifically target the3' untranslated region (3'UTR region) of INHBA. Besides, the result was consistent with the quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) verification results of 17 CRC cases and adjacent tissues collected clinically. Western Blot (WB) manifested that INHBA protein was highly expressed in CRC tissues, which was consistent with the results of CRC cell lines (HT29, SW480). Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining demonstrated that INHBA protein was brownish yellow, overwhelming majority of INHBA protein were located in the cytoplasm, and expression level was significantly higher than that in adjacent tissues. Based on previous studies, the biological process of INHBA-mediated TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway inducing the proliferation and invasion of CRC has been partially confirmed, but the upstream signaling molecules and mechanisms which regulating INHBA remain unclear. Herein, benefiting from bioinformatics, preliminary experimental results and previous research, they provide basis for the follow-up study on the regulation of HNF1A-AS1/miR-214/INHBA signal axis in CRC.


Author(s):  
Shu-Zhen Zhang ◽  
Long Xie ◽  
Zheng-Jun Shang

Background: Oral cancer (OC) is a common tumour that poses a threat to human health and imposes a heavy burden on countries. This study assessed the burden imposed by OC on the 10 most populous countries from 1990 to 2019 on the basis of gender, age and socio-demographic index. Methods: Data on incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALY) and corresponding age-standardised rates (ASR) for OC in the 10 most populous countries from 1990 to 2019 were derived from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Estimated annual percentage changes were calculated to assess the trends of morbidity, mortality and DALY. The indicator that served as a proxy for survival rate was the supplement of mortality-to-incidence ratio (SMIR) (1 − (M/I)). Results: The number of new cases, deaths and DALY have increased in all 10 countries in the past 30 years. Trends in age-standardised incidence rates (ASIR), age-standardised mortality rate (ASMR) and age-standardised DALY for OC in the 10 most populous countries varied. The SMIR increased in all countries, with most countries having an SMIR between 30% and 50%. In 2019, the United States had the highest SMIR at 76%, whereas Russia had the lowest at 21.7%. Incidence and mortality were close between male and female subjects in Japan, Indonesia, Mexico, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. The incidence and mortality in male subjects in the United States, Russia, China and Brazil were two or more times those of female subjects. Gender difference was highest among patients aged 40–69 years. Conclusion: Trends and gender differences in ASIR, ASMR and age-standardised DALY for OC vary in the 10 most populous countries. Government cancer programs are often expensive to run, especially in countries with large populations. Policy makers need to take these differences into account when formulating policies.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zeynep Ertem ◽  
Elissa M. Schechter-Perkins ◽  
Emily Oster ◽  
Polly van den Berg ◽  
Isabella Epshtein ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yusheng Guo ◽  
Guohui Wu ◽  
Junrong Yi ◽  
Qin Yang ◽  
Wengong Jiang ◽  
...  

There are significant gender differences in the incidence and mortality of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Compared with men, the incidence and mortality of HCC in women are relatively low. The estrogen signaling pathway, composed of estrogen and estrogen receptors, has been postulated to have a protective effect on the occurrence and development of HCC. There have been multiple studies that have supported anti-HCC effects of the estrogen signaling pathways, including direct and indirect pathways such as genomic pathways, rapid transduction pathways, non-coding RNA, tumor microenvironment, estrogen metabolites, and inhibition of hepatitis infection and replication. Based on the evidence of an anti-HCC effect of the estrogen signaling pathway, a number of strategies have been investigated to determine the potential therapeutic effect. These have included estrogen replacement therapy, targeting the estrogen receptor, key molecules, inflammatory mediators, and regulatory pathways of the estrogen signaling pathway. In this review, we have systematically summarized the latest developments in the complex functions and molecular mechanisms of the estrogen signaling pathway in liver cancer. Furthermore, we have highlighted the potential targets of treatment strategies based on the estrogen signaling pathway in the treatment of liver cancer and the principal obstacles currently encountered for future investigation.


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