burden of disease
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
pp. 100140
Kevin Pacheco-Barrios ◽  
Alba Navarro-Flores ◽  
Alejandra Cardenas-Rojas ◽  
Paulo S. de Melo ◽  
Elif Uygur-Kucukseymen ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 204 ◽  
pp. 112057
Kazem Naddafi ◽  
Alireza Mesdaghinia ◽  
Mehrnoosh Abtahi ◽  
Mohammad Sadegh Hassanvand ◽  
Ayoub Beiki ◽  

Shu-Zhen Zhang ◽  
Long Xie ◽  
Zheng-Jun Shang

Background: Oral cancer (OC) is a common tumour that poses a threat to human health and imposes a heavy burden on countries. This study assessed the burden imposed by OC on the 10 most populous countries from 1990 to 2019 on the basis of gender, age and socio-demographic index. Methods: Data on incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALY) and corresponding age-standardised rates (ASR) for OC in the 10 most populous countries from 1990 to 2019 were derived from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Estimated annual percentage changes were calculated to assess the trends of morbidity, mortality and DALY. The indicator that served as a proxy for survival rate was the supplement of mortality-to-incidence ratio (SMIR) (1 − (M/I)). Results: The number of new cases, deaths and DALY have increased in all 10 countries in the past 30 years. Trends in age-standardised incidence rates (ASIR), age-standardised mortality rate (ASMR) and age-standardised DALY for OC in the 10 most populous countries varied. The SMIR increased in all countries, with most countries having an SMIR between 30% and 50%. In 2019, the United States had the highest SMIR at 76%, whereas Russia had the lowest at 21.7%. Incidence and mortality were close between male and female subjects in Japan, Indonesia, Mexico, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. The incidence and mortality in male subjects in the United States, Russia, China and Brazil were two or more times those of female subjects. Gender difference was highest among patients aged 40–69 years. Conclusion: Trends and gender differences in ASIR, ASMR and age-standardised DALY for OC vary in the 10 most populous countries. Government cancer programs are often expensive to run, especially in countries with large populations. Policy makers need to take these differences into account when formulating policies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. e0010040
David Horn

The parasitic trypanosomatids cause lethal and debilitating diseases, the leishmaniases, Chagas disease, and the African trypanosomiases, with major impacts on human and animal health. Sustained research has borne fruit by assisting efforts to reduce the burden of disease and by improving our understanding of fundamental molecular and cell biology. But where has the research primarily been conducted, and which research areas have received the most attention? These questions are addressed below using publication and citation data from the past few decades.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Deepak Kumar Behera ◽  
Sanghamitra Mishra

Abstract Background This study aims to measure the burden of diarrhea in India and analyze the trend of mortality associated with it for the past 30 years. We also intend to find the prevailing etiology and risk factors associated with diarrheal mortality in India. Methods The study has used the latest round of Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study-2019. GBD data is available across age groups and gender-wise over the period from 1990 to 2019. The study has identified 13 etiologies for the cause of diarrhea deaths and 20 risk factors to analyze the burden of disease. Results Our study shows, childhood diarrhea has declined over the years significantly, yet contributes to a larger share of DALYs associated with the disease. Among all the death cases of Diarrhea, in 2019, the most prevalent disease-causing pathogen is found to be Campylobacter. But Adenovirus is the major contributor to childhood diarrheal deaths. Though the burden of diarrhea is declining over the period, still there is a need to progress the interventions to prevent and control diarrhea rapidly to avoid the huge number of deaths and disabilities experienced in India. Conclusions Consumption of safe and clean water, proper sanitation facility in every household, required nutrition intake by mother and child, safe breastfeeding and stool disposal practices and careful case management, rotavirus vaccination are some of the effective interventions to be implemented all over the country. Further, evidence-based policies should be made and implemented to sustain diarrhea prevention programs.

BMC Cancer ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Vanessa Gorasso ◽  
Geert Silversmit ◽  
Marc Arbyn ◽  
Astrid Cornez ◽  
Robby De Pauw ◽  

Abstract Background The importance of assessing and monitoring the health status of a population has grown in the last decades. Consistent and high quality data on the morbidity and mortality impact of a disease represent the key element for this assessment. Being increasingly used in global and national burden of diseases (BoD) studies, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) is an indicator that combines healthy life years lost due to living with disease (Years Lived with Disability; YLD) and due to dying prematurely (Years of Life Lost; YLL). As a step towards a comprehensive national burden of disease study, this study aims to estimate the non-fatal burden of cancer in Belgium using national data. Methods We estimated the Belgian cancer burden from 2004 to 2019 in terms of YLD, using national population-based cancer registry data and international disease models. We developed a microsimulation model to translate incidence- into prevalence-based estimates, and used expert elicitation to integrate the long-term impact of increased disability due to surgical treatment. Results The age-standardized non-fatal burden of cancer increased from 2004 to 2019 by 6 and 3% respectively for incidence- and prevalence-based YLDs. In 2019, in Belgium, breast cancer had the highest morbidity impact among women, followed by colorectal and non-melanoma skin cancer. Among men, prostate cancer had the highest morbidity impact, followed by colorectal and non-melanoma skin cancer. Between 2004 and 2019, non-melanoma skin cancer significantly increased for both sexes in terms of age-standardized incidence-based YLD per 100,000, from 49 to 111 for men and from 15 to 44 for women. Important decreases were seen for colorectal cancer for both sexes in terms of age-standardized incidence-based YLD per 100,000, from 105 to 84 for men and from 66 to 58 for women. Conclusions Breast and prostate cancers represent the greatest proportion of cancer morbidity, while for both sexes the morbidity burden of skin cancer has shown an important increase from 2004 onwards. Integrating the current study in the Belgian national burden of disease study will allow monitoring of the burden of cancer over time, highlighting new trends and assessing the impact of public health policies.

Sofie Theresa Thomsen ◽  
Lea S. Jakobsen ◽  
Hernan G. Redondo ◽  
Malene Outzen ◽  
Sisse Fagt ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Panglin Sun ◽  
Haoyu Wen ◽  
Xiaoxue Liu ◽  
Yudiyang Ma ◽  
Jie Jang ◽  

Abstract Background The incidence rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rapidly increasing in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS). The present study analyzed trends in T2DM incidence rate across the BRICS and associations with age, period, and birth cohort. Methods The incidence rate was estimated by the data obtained from GBD 2019 (Global Burden of Disease Study 2019) and was analyzed with the age-period-cohort framework. Incidence rates of T2DM (1990–2019) were collected for each 5-year age group (from 25 to 29 to 85–89 age group) stratified by gender from the Global Burden of Disease 2019 Study. Results In 2019, the the incidence rate of T2DM was 280.2 per 100,000 across the BRICS. Between 1990 and 2019, the incidence rate of T2DM among the BRICS population increased by 83.3%. In each period, as age increases, the incidence rate of T2DM in China and Russia first increased and then decreased, while the incidence rate of T2DM in Brazil, India and South Africa first increased and then decreased slightly with age group. Deteriorating period and cohort risks for incidence rate of T2DM were generally found across the BRICS. Conclusions The number of diabetic patients in the BRICS countries has continued to increase and the growth rate has been stable in the past 30 years, which is dependent on age and some other environmental factors. Some possible factors influencing T2DM incidence are analyzed and hypotheses generated through the age and period effects.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Yiyi Yao ◽  
Xiangjie Lin ◽  
Fenglin Li ◽  
Jie Jin ◽  
Huafeng Wang

Abstract Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent subtype of leukemia in Western countries, causing a substantial health burden on patients and society. Comprehensive evaluation of the epidemiological characteristics of CLL is warranted, especially in the current context of global population aging. The main objective of this study is evaluating the disease burden of CLL at global, regional, and national levels from 1990 to 2019. As secondary objectives, we studied the influence of demographic factors and performed risk factor analysis. We hope this study could provide evidence for the evaluation of the effectiveness of previous prevention strategies and the formulation of future global health policies. Results Based on data of CLL between 1990 to 2019 from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study 2019, we depicted the age, gender, and regional structure of the CLL burden population and described the impact of social development on the disease burden of CLL. The distribution and changing trends of attributable risk factors were also investigated. The global burden of CLL has increased dramatically. A high incidence has been achieved in males and elder people. Countries and territories with high social-demographic index (SDI) tended to have higher global burden than low-SDI region. Of risk factors, high body mass index and smoking were the major contributors for CLL-related mortality and disability adjusted life-years (DALYs). Conclusion In summary, the global CLL burden continues to rise over the past 30 years. The relocation of medical resource should be considered on a global scale. Graphical Abstract

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