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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 180-188
Author(s):  
Silé Souam Nguélé ◽  
Adrienne Ngaringuem ◽  
Kounnezouné Patalet ◽  
Kanezouné Gongnet ◽  
Djaury Dadji-a ◽  
...  

Introduction: Hypotrophy is a public health problem in developing countries. Its etiology is multifactorial and it may be associated with high morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and evolutionary profile of hypotrophic newborns at term. Methodology: this was a prospective, descriptive and analytical study conducted in the neonatology department of the MCUH of N'Djamena from 01/06/2018 to 31/05/2019. It involved 109 hypotrophic newborns at term hospitalized. Results: The frequency of hypotrophy was 7.8%, the risk factors were: housewife status (81.7%), low level of education (67%), poor pregnancy follow-up (59.7%), malaria (40.4%), urogenital infections (22%) and anemia (22%) during pregnancy. Hypotrophy was harmonious in 58.7% of cases, the sex ratio was 1.14 and visible congenital malformations were observed in 12.7% of cases. The main reasons for hospitalization were neonatal infections (64.2%), perinatal asphyxia (14.7%) and hypothermia (11.9%). Lethality was 16.5% and associated with multiparity, poor pregnancy follow-up, vaginal delivery, home delivery, pathological Apgar score, notion of resuscitation, existence of malformation, respiratory distress and perinatal asphyxia. Conclusion: Better monitoring of pregnancy, use of family planning by couples, delivery in an institutionalized setting, and reinforcement of the technical platform of the neonatology department will reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality related to hypotrophy.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Deepak Kumar Behera ◽  
Sanghamitra Mishra

Abstract Background This study aims to measure the burden of diarrhea in India and analyze the trend of mortality associated with it for the past 30 years. We also intend to find the prevailing etiology and risk factors associated with diarrheal mortality in India. Methods The study has used the latest round of Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study-2019. GBD data is available across age groups and gender-wise over the period from 1990 to 2019. The study has identified 13 etiologies for the cause of diarrhea deaths and 20 risk factors to analyze the burden of disease. Results Our study shows, childhood diarrhea has declined over the years significantly, yet contributes to a larger share of DALYs associated with the disease. Among all the death cases of Diarrhea, in 2019, the most prevalent disease-causing pathogen is found to be Campylobacter. But Adenovirus is the major contributor to childhood diarrheal deaths. Though the burden of diarrhea is declining over the period, still there is a need to progress the interventions to prevent and control diarrhea rapidly to avoid the huge number of deaths and disabilities experienced in India. Conclusions Consumption of safe and clean water, proper sanitation facility in every household, required nutrition intake by mother and child, safe breastfeeding and stool disposal practices and careful case management, rotavirus vaccination are some of the effective interventions to be implemented all over the country. Further, evidence-based policies should be made and implemented to sustain diarrhea prevention programs.


Author(s):  
Akifumi Eguchi ◽  
Kenichi Sakurai ◽  
Midori Yamamoto ◽  
Masahiro Watanabe ◽  
Aya Hisada ◽  
...  

Maternal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy is associated with a low birth weight; however, the congener-specific effects of PCB congeners are not well defined. In this study, we used maternal serum samples from the Chiba Study of Mother and Child Health (C-MACH) cohort, collected at 32 weeks of gestational age, to analyze the effects of PCB congener exposure on birth weight by examining the relationship between newborn birth weight and individual PCB congener levels in maternal serum (n = 291). The median total PCB level in the serum of mothers of male and female newborns at approximately 32 weeks of gestation was 39 and 37 ng g−1 lipid wt, respectively. The effect of the total PCB levels and the effects of PCB congener mixtures were analyzed using a linear regression model and a generalized weighted quantile sum regression model (gWQS). The birth weight of newborns was significantly associated with maternal exposure to PCB mixtures in the gWQS model. The results suggest that exposure to PCB mixtures results in low newborn birth weight. However, specific impacts of individual PCB congeners could not be related to newborn birth weight.


2022 ◽  
pp. 112682
Author(s):  
Agnieszka Brzozowska ◽  
Daniela Podlecka ◽  
Agnieszka Jankowska ◽  
Anna Król ◽  
Dorota Kaleta ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (3) ◽  
pp. 62-78
Author(s):  
Emma Xing Chen

This article reports on a qualitative study of 22 Latina mothers and their experiences supporting their children’s remote education during COVID-19. Drawing on digital literacies and mujerista theory, the authors analyzed focus group data to find the following: Latina mothers’ struggles involved not just understanding online learning platforms but an educational system that was not responsive to the economic constraints and stressors faced by families; Latina mothers  perceived the school district’s response to COVID-19 as performative and inadequate; Latina mothers developed mother-child pedagogies or pedagogies in which the mother and child are involved in teaching to and learning from each other. The findings lend support to the idea that the digital literacy divide does not exist outside of social and economic structures, and to the resourcefulness of everyday Latina mothers.  


2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (3) ◽  
pp. 79-93
Author(s):  
Jie Park ◽  
Laurie Ross ◽  
Deisy Ledezma Rodriguez

This article reports on a qualitative study of 22 Latina mothers and their experiences supporting their children’s remote education during COVID-19. Drawing on digital literacies and mujerista theory, the authors analyzed focus group data to find the following: Latina mothers’ struggles involved not just understanding online learning platforms but an educational system that was not responsive to the economic constraints and stressors faced by families; Latina mothers  perceived the school district’s response to COVID-19 as performative and inadequate; Latina mothers developed mother-child pedagogies or pedagogies in which the mother and child are involved in teaching to and learning from each other. The findings lend support to the idea that the digital literacy divide does not exist outside of social and economic structures, and to the resourcefulness of everyday Latina mothers.


2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (3) ◽  
pp. 180-183
Author(s):  
Shinta Novelia ◽  
Rosmawati Lubis ◽  
Linda Yuliani ◽  
Hadrian Marta

Background: The nutritional status of pregnant women greatly affects the health and development of the fetus. Impaired growth in the womb can cause low birth weight, which triggers stunting. Stunting is a condition of toddlers who have short body size and are not suitable for age caused by malnutrition from both mother and child. Objective: to determine the implementation of stunting prevention programs during the Covid- 19 pandemic at the work area of the Banjar Health Center, Pandeglang Regency in 2021. Methodology: The study used in this study was an analytic observational study with a cross sectional approach. The sample in this study was 100 respondents using SPSS with a frequency distribution table using univariate analysis. Results: The research variable for the class of pregnant women obtained a value of 72.0%, for giving Biscuits additional foods a value of 93.0% and for counseling of ranting kelor obtained a value of 81.0%. Conclusions and Recommendations: Prevention of stunting after the Covid-19 pandemic greatly affects the program activities carried out by the Banjar Health Center. It is hoped that this research can provide information, especially to pregnant women and the public, about the importance of preventing stunting since pregnancy.


Author(s):  
Ibragimova N.M.

This article is aimed at dealing with the artistic, aesthetic and genre originality of women's prose in Russia and Uzbekistan. The analysis revealed fascinating analogies and issues, in terms of  the formulation and resolution to the subject matter: "shattered  dreams", "paradise lost", the search for the meaning of life, "little man", faith and lack of faith, male infidelity and the fear of loneliness, "mother and child", "life and death", female destiny, etc.


Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 105
Author(s):  
Kirsti Krohn Garnæs ◽  
Trude Elvebakk ◽  
Øyvind Salvesen ◽  
Signe Nilssen Stafne ◽  
Siv Mørkved ◽  
...  

Women with obesity have increased risk for hyperglycemia during pregnancy, with negative health consequences for mother and child. We aimed to investigate adherence to nutritional recommendations in early pregnancy and to examine associations between early pregnancy dietary intake and late pregnancy glycemia among women with obesity. We included 120 women with pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 who participated in one of two randomized controlled trials. The participants completed a food frequency questionnaire in early pregnancy (gestational weeks 12–22). Fasting and 120 min glucose tolerance after ingestion of 75 g glucose were assessed in late pregnancy (gestational weeks 32–37). About 90% of the participants reported early pregnancy diary intake within the recommendations. Average intakes of vitamin D, iron, and folate were below recommended levels. High intakes of dairy products and protein in early pregnancy were associated with lower fasting glucose in late pregnancy, whereas high intake of bread was associated with lower 120 min glucose. There were no clear associations between single dietary variables and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnosis in late pregnancy. In conclusion, some early pregnancy dietary variables were associated with late pregnancy glycemia. Potential causality of these findings should be investigated in future studies.


Author(s):  
Светлана Станиславовна Пиюкова

Статья посвящена рассмотрению психологических основ совместного пребывания осужденных женщин с детьми в отделениях матери и ребенка пенитенциарных учреждений различных стран. Раскрывается значение регулярных контактов осужденной женщины со своим ребенком на протяжении всего срока ее пребывания в исправительном учреждении. Характеризуется влияние ограничения контактов с матерями, находящимися в местах лишения свободы, на развитие психики их детей. Авторами статьи обосновывается роль поддержания отношений между матерями и детьми как одного из факторов, способствующих увеличению вероятности успешного воссоединения семей после освобождения женщин из мест лишения свободы. Рассматриваются существующие в настоящее время в международной пенитенциарной практике решения по созданию условий для содержания осужденных женщин с детьми в исправительных учреждениях. Характеризуются задачи отделений матери и ребенка, а также приводятся примеры из практики их организации в пенитенциарных системах США, Канады, Великобритании, Новой Зеландии, Германии и других стран. Приводятся данные исследований, свидетельствующие об эффективности работы отделений матери и ребенка. Анализируются аргументы сторонников и противников содержания осужденных женщин с детьми в исправительных учреждениях. Обосновывается тезис о необходимости достижения баланса в удовлетворении потребностей ребенка, с одной стороны, и организации условий для совместного содержания осужденных женщин с детьми в исправительных учреждениях, принимая во внимание вопросы безопасности и серьезность правонарушений со стороны матери. The article is devoted to the examination of the psychological foundations of the joint stay of convicted women with children in the mother and child wards of penitentiary institutions in different countries. The significance of regular contacts between a convicted woman and her child throughout the entire period of her stay in a correctional institution is revealed. The influence of limiting contacts with mothers in prison on the development of the psyche of their children is characterized. The authors of the article substantiate the role of maintaining relations between mothers and children as one of the factors contributing to an increase in the likelihood of successful family reunification after the release of women from prison. The author considers the solutions currently existing in international penitentiary practice to create conditions for the detention of convicted women with children in correctional institutions. The tasks of mother and child departments are characterized, and examples from the practice of their organization in the penitentiary systems of the USA, Canada, Great Britain, New Zealand, Germany and other countries are given. Research data showing the effectiveness of the work of the mother and child departments are presented. The arguments of supporters and opponents of keeping convicted women with children in correctional institutions are analyzed. The thesis is substantiated that it is necessary to achieve a balance in meeting the needs of the child, on the one hand, and to organize conditions for the joint detention of convicted women with children in correctional institutions, taking into account the issues of safety and the seriousness of offenses on the part of the mother.


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