cold shock
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Larissa Monteiro Vasconcelos ◽  
Renata Farias ◽  
Iru Menezes Guimarães ◽  
Athiê Jorge Guerra Santos ◽  
Humber Agrelli Andrade ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Dylan R. Zeiss ◽  
Paul A. Steenkamp ◽  
Lizelle A. Piater ◽  
Ian A. Dubery

Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt, is one of the most destructive bacterial plant pathogens. This is linked to its evolutionary adaptation to evade host surveillance during the infection process since many of the pathogen’s associated molecular patterns escape recognition. However, a 22-amino acid sequence of R. solanacearum-derived cold shock protein (csp22) was discovered to elicit an immune response in the Solanaceae. Using untargeted metabolomics, the effects of csp22-elicitation on the metabolome of Solanum lycopersicum leaves were investigated. Additionally, the study set out to discover trends that may suggest that csp22 inoculation bestows enhanced resistance on tomato against bacterial wilt. Results revealed the redirection of metabolism toward the phenylpropanoid pathway and sub-branches thereof. Compared to the host response with live bacteria, csp22 induced a subset of the discriminant metabolites, but also metabolites not induced in response to R. solanacearum. Here, a spectrum of hydroxycinnamic acids (especially ferulic acid), their conjugates and derivatives predominated as signatory biomarkers. From a metabolomics perspective, the results support claims that csp22 pre-treatment of tomato plants elicits increased resistance to R. solanacearum infection and contribute to knowledge on plant immune systems operation at an integrative level. The functional significance of these specialized compounds may thus support a heightened state of defense that can be applied to ward off attacking pathogens or toward priming of defense against future infections.

Charannya Sozheesvari Subhramanyam ◽  
Qiong Cao ◽  
Cheng Wang ◽  
Zealyn Shi-Lin Heng ◽  
Zhihong Zhou ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Yuqing Ma ◽  
Shunqing Hu ◽  
Guifang Chen ◽  
Yonghua Zheng ◽  
Peng Jin

Abstract Objectives The work intended to reveal the effect of cold shock (CS) treatment on chilling injury (CI), antioxidant capacity, and membrane fatty acid of peach fruit. Materials and methods Peaches were soaked in ice water (0 °C) for 10 min and stored at 5 °C for 28 days for determination, except CI, and then stored for 3 days at 20 °C, only CI was measured. The electrolyte leakage (EL) was measured by conductivity meter. The activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, and peroxidase) and key enzymes of membrane lipid metabolism (phospholipase D, lipase, and lipoxygenase) as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS; O2·– and H2O2) were measured with a spectrophotometer. An ELISA kit and gas chromatography were used to determine membrane lipids and membrane fatty acids. The relative gene expression was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Results The results showed that CS treatment effectively delayed CI, suppressed the increase of EL and malondialdehyde content. Meanwhile, CS-treated fruit exhibited lower level of ROS and higher activities of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, CS treatment inhibited the activities as well as the relative gene expression of key enzymes in membrane lipid metabolism. CS-treated fruits maintained higher membrane fatty acid unsaturation and lower phosphatidic acid content. Conclusions These results indicated that CS treatment effectively alleviated CI and maintained the integrity of cell membranes by inducing antioxidant-related enzyme activity and maintaining a higher ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 494
Dorota Fopp-Bayat ◽  
Gyan Chandra ◽  
Anna Nitkiewicz

The objective of the present research was to study the effect of cold shock (3 °C and 6 °C) on fertilized eggs of the sterlet, Acipenser ruthenus L. Cold shock was applied for various durations (30, 60 and 90 min) and the ploidy levels, survival, and genotypes of the treated embryos/larvae were recorded. Analysis of ploidy levels confirmed the presence of diploid, triploid, and mosaic (1n/2n, 2n/3n, and 1n/2n/3n) genotypes in experimental groups, while it was strictly diploid in control groups. Microsatellite genotyping confirmed both the incidence of polyspermy and retention of the 2nd polar body in experimental groups. However, patterns of inheritance in all diploid offspring in experimental and control groups revealed classical Mendelian disomic inheritance. Interestingly, the observed mosaic sterlets had normal morphology and were alive. However, some larvae had abnormal morphology which may be due to haploid syndrome. In all treatment groups (treatments: 3 °C–30 min; 3 °C–60 min; 3 °C–90 min; 6 °C–60 min), where the percentage of polyploid/mosaic larvae were high, the mortality was also high. Whereas, in the control groups (where there were only diploid (2n) larvae), the mortality was relatively low.

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