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2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 014-026
Mercy M Umokaso ◽  
Bernard JO Efiuvwevwere ◽  
Francis S Ire

Cereal-porridge(‘ogi’) was produced by spontaneous fermentation using maize and sorghum substrates. The microbiological dynamics involved were monitored over a period of 48h fermentation. Bacteria, yeasts and moulds were isolated. Based on the morphological, cultural and biochemical test results, the aerobic bacterial isolates were identified as Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp, Citrobacter sp, Bacillus sp, Proteus sp, Shigella sp, and Escherichia coli. The Lactic acid bacteria were Lactococcus sp, Enterococcus sp, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus sp. The yeast isolates were 2 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one other Saccharomyces sp and a Candida sp. The moulds were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus sp and Penicillium sp. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated were 2 strains of Lactococcus lactis, 2 Enterobacter spp, 5 strains of Lactobacillus fermentum and 1 other Lactobacillus sp. The initial total viable aerobic bacterial count at 0h in maize, sorghum and maize-sorghum blend were 4.6 × 104, 7.3 × 104 and 2.4 × 105cfu/ml respectively. The growths rose to peaks of 6.5 × 107 and 3.9 × 107cfu/ml at 24h in maize and maize-sorghum blend, respectively. A Peak of 4.7 x 107cfu/ml was attained at 36h in sorghum. Coliform bacteria and moulds growths in the three samples attained peaks of growth at 12h and reduced till there was no growth by 48h. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts increased in numbers till the end of fermentation. The initial pH value at 0h was lowest in maize-sorghum blend sample (5.43) and highest in maize (5.75). Final values at 48h were 3.76, 3.78 and 3.75 in maize, sorghum and maize-sorghum blend samples respectively. There were no significant differences between the microbial growth patterns, changes in pH, total titratable acidity (TTA) and amylase enzymatic activities in maize, sorghum and maize-sorghum blend samples during fermentation.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 646
Peng Jiang ◽  
Zhipeng Li ◽  
Wei Lu ◽  
Yi Ma ◽  
Wenhuai Tian

Developing rare-earth doped oxysulfide phosphors with diverse morphologies has significant value in many research fields such as in displays, medical diagnosis, and information storage. All of the time, phosphors with spherical morphology have been developed in most of the related literatures. Herein, by simply adjusting the pH values of the reaction solution, Gd2O2S:Tb3+ phosphors with various morphologies (sphere-like, sheet-like, cuboid-like, flat square-like, rod-like) were synthesized. The XRD patterns showed that phosphors with all morphologies are pure hexagonal phase of Gd2O2S. The atomic resolution structural analysis by transmission electron microscopy revealed the crystal growth model of the phosphors with different morphology. With the morphological change, the band gap energy of Gd2O2S:Tb3+ crystal changed from 3.76 eV to 4.28 eV, followed by different luminescence performance. The samples with sphere-like and cuboid-like microstructures exhibit stronger cathodoluminescence intensity than commercial product by comparison. Moreover, luminescence of Gd2O2S:Tb3+ phosphors have different emission performance excited by UV light radiation and an electron beam, which when excited by UV light is biased towards yellow, and while excited by an electron beam is biased towards cyan. This finding provides a simple but effective method to achieve rare-earth doped oxysulfide phosphors with diversified and tunable luminescence properties through morphology control.

B.O. Itakorode ◽  
O.E. Agboola ◽  
M.B. Adeboye ◽  
C.C. Benedict ◽  
K.N. Terkula ◽  

Objective: Tyrosinase is a glycosylated, copper-containing oxidase that catalyzes the first two steps of mammalian melanogenesis as well as enzymatic browning events in damaged fruits during post-harvest handling and processing. Human skin hyperpigmentation and enzymatic browning in fruits are both undesirable. In this study, the properties and inhibitory effect of some compounds on bitter kola tyrosinase were investigated. Methods: Bitter kola tyrosinase was isolated and characterized using standard protocols. Partial purification was carried out on Sephadex G-100 loaded column chromatography.  Results: Bitter kola tyrosinase was purified with a specific activity of 3.5 U/mg protein, purification fold of 2.4 and a yield of 34%. The optimum pH value was found to be 6.0 while the optimum temperature value for maximum enzyme activity was observed at 60°C. The enzyme was stable at 40oC for 20 minutes. Metals such as NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2 had inhibitory effect on the activity; though MgCl2 and CaCl2 had minimal effect. Also, EDTA, β-marcaptoethanol and glutathione greatly inhibited the enzyme activity at all the tested concentration. Conclusion: The properties of bitter kola tyrosinase compare very well with the tyrosinase from other sources. Also, the study was able to establish the inhibitory effect of some compounds and this could be applied in food processing industries.                  Peer Review History: Received: 2 November 2021; Revised: 11 December; Accepted: 25 December, Available online: 15 January 2022 Academic Editor:  Dr. A.A. Mgbahurike, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, [email protected] UJPR follows the most transparent and toughest ‘Advanced OPEN peer review’ system. The identity of the authors and, reviewers will be known to each other. This transparent process will help to eradicate any possible malicious/purposeful interference by any person (publishing staff, reviewer, editor, author, etc) during peer review. As a result of this unique system, all reviewers will get their due recognition and respect, once their names are published in the papers. We expect that, by publishing peer review reports with published papers, will be helpful to many authors for drafting their article according to the specifications. Auhors will remove any error of their article and they will improve their article(s) according to the previous reports displayed with published article(s). The main purpose of it is ‘to improve the quality of a candidate manuscript’. Our reviewers check the ‘strength and weakness of a manuscript honestly’. There will increase in the perfection, and transparency.  Received file:                Reviewer's Comments: Average Peer review marks at initial stage: 6.0/10 Average Peer review marks at publication stage: 7.5/10 Reviewers: Dr. Nazim Hussain, North East Frontier Technical University, Arunachal pradesh, India, [email protected] Ahmad Najib, Universitas Muslim Indonesia, Makassar, Indonesia, [email protected] Prof. Dr. Ali Gamal Ahmed Al-kaf, Sana'a university, Yemen, [email protected] Similar Articles: PHYTOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS ISOLATED FROM ROOT OF THE MEDICINAL HERB, CARALLUMA QUADRANGULA

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 121
Tize Xia ◽  
Lushuang Li ◽  
Bin Li ◽  
Peitong Dou ◽  
Hanqi Yang

The previous studies show soil microbes play a key role in the material and nutrient cycles in the forest ecosystem, but little is known about how soil microbes respond to plant distribution, especially in the soil bacterial community in woody bamboo forests. Cephalostachyum pingbianense (Hsueh & Y.M. Yang ex Yi et al.) D.Z. Li & H.Q. Yang, 2007 is known as the only bamboo species producing shoots all year round in natural conditions. Endemic to the Dawei mountain in Yunnan of China, this species is a good case to study how soil bacteria respond to plant endemic distribution. In this work, we assayed the soil chemical properties, enzyme activity, changes in the bacterial community along the distribution range of the C. pingbianense forest. The results showed that soil nutrients at the range edge were nitrogen-rich but phosphorus-deficient, and soil pH value and soil urease activity were significantly lower than that of the central range. No significant difference was detected in soil bacterial diversity, community composition, and function between the central and marginal range of C. pingbianense forest. Notably, the relative abundance of heterotrophy bacteria, such as Variibacter and Acidothermus, in the soil of the C. pingbianense forest was significantly higher than that of the outside range, which may lead to a higher soil organic carbon mineralization rate. These results imply that abundant heterotrophy bacteria were linked to the endemism and full-year shooting in C. pingbianense. Our study is amongst the first cases demonstrating the important role of heterotrophy bacteria in the distribution formation of endemic woody bamboos in special soil habitats, and provides insight into germplasm conservation and forest management in woody bamboos.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 487
Jolanta Polak ◽  
Marcin Grąz ◽  
Kamila Wlizło ◽  
Katarzyna Szałapata ◽  
Justyna Kapral-Piotrowska ◽  

Fungal laccase obtained from a Cerrena unicolor strain was used as an effective biocatalyst for the transformation of 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid into a green-coloured antibacterial compound, which can be considered as both an antimicrobial agent and a textile dye, simultaneously. The process of biosynthesis was performed in buffered solutions containing methanol as a co-solvent, allowing better solubilisation of substrate. The transformation process was optimised in terms of the buffer pH value, laccase activity, and concentrations of the substrate and co-solvent. The crude product obtained exhibited low cytotoxicity, antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and antioxidant properties. Moreover, the synthesised green-coloured compound proved non-allergenic and demonstrated a high efficiency of dyeing wool fibres.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 235
Fatma Mohamed ◽  
Safwat Hassaballa ◽  
Mohamed Shaban ◽  
Ashour M. Ahmed

In this paper, Fe2O3 and Fe2O3-zeolite nanopowders are prepared by chemical precipitation utilizing the rusted iron waste and natural zeolite. In addition to the nanomorphologies; the chemical composition, structural parameters, and optical properties are examined using many techniques. The Fe2O3-zeolite photocatalyst showed smaller sizes and higher light absorption in visible light than Fe2O3. Both Fe2O3 and Fe2O3-zeolite are used as photocatalysts for methylene blue (MB) photodegradation under solar light. The effects of the contact time, starting MB concentration, Fe2O3-zeolite dose, and pH value on photocatalytic performance are investigated. The full photocatalytic degradation of MB dye (10 mg/L) is achieved using 75 mg of Fe2O3-zeolite under visible light after 30 s, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the highest performance yet for Fe2O3-based photocatalysts. This photocatalyst has also shown remarkable stability and recyclability. The kinetics and mechanisms of the photocatalytic process are studied. Therefore, the current work can be applied industrially as a cost-effective method for eliminating the harmful MB dye from wastewater and recycling the rusted iron wires.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 16
Huan Zhang ◽  
Shouqing Liu

Graphene/MoS2 hybrid material was prepared by the hydrothermal method. The hybrid material was characterized by X-ray diffraction spectrum, Raman spectra, transmission electron microscope and UV-vis-NIRS. It was used as a near-infrared photocatalyst to catalyze and degrade Rhodamine B (RhB). The results showed that when the concentration of the RhB solution was 50.0 mg·L–1, the pH value of the solution was 7, the volume of the solution was 50.0 mL, the amount of G/MoS2 catalyst was 0.05 g and near-infrared radiation was carried out for 3 h, the degradation rate of RhB in the 50 mL solution reached 96.5%. When MoS2 was used as the photocatalyst, the degradation rate of RhB was only 75.5%. After 5 times of recycling, the catalytic efficiency of the hybrid photocatalyst was still more than 90%, indicating that the catalyst is very stable.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 559
Florinela Pirvu ◽  
Cristina Ileana Covaliu-Mierlă ◽  
Iuliana Paun ◽  
Gigel Paraschiv ◽  
Vasile Iancu

This study presents an adsorbent material (activated carbon) used in the treatment of wastewater with the role of removing ibuprofen, acetaminophen, diclofenac and ketoprofen pollutants. The wastewater treatment efficiencies of the activated carbon were systematically investigated using adsorption kinetics. The parameters studied were: pH (4 and 6 values of pH), initial concentration of wastewater (1, 5, and 10 mg/L), contact time (10 min), adsorbent quantity (0.1, 0.5, and 1 g), and isotherm models (Langmuir and Freundlich). The highest wastewater treatment efficiency was obtained at the 6 pH value. The determination of four anti-inflammatory drugs, frequently monitored in wastewater, was performed by a simple and fast method using the HPLC-technique-type DAD (diode array detector). The method was linear when the concentration ranged between 0.5 and 20 m/L for all compounds. The equilibrium concentration was obtained after 8 min. The octanol/water coefficient influenced the removal efficiency of the four drugs by the adsorbent material (activated carbon). The dose of activated carbon (0.1 to 1 g) significantly influenced the efficiency of wastewater treatment, which increased considerably when the dose of the adsorbent material increased. Using 1 g of the adsorbent material for the treatment of wastewater containing 1 mg/L initial concentration of pollutant compounds, the efficiencies were 98% for acetaminophen, 92% for diclofenac, 88% for ketoprofen and 96% for ibuprofen.

M. Ilić ◽  
Z. Srdjević ◽  
B. Srdjević

Abstract In the fast-changing world with increased water demand, water pollution, environmental problems, and related data, information on water quality and suitability for any purpose should be prompt and reliable. Traditional approaches often fail in the attempt to predict water quality classes and new ones are needed to handle a large amount or missing data to predict water quality in real-time. One of such approaches is machine-learning (ML) based prediction. This paper presents the results of the application of the Naïve Bayes, a widely used ML method, in creating the prediction model. The proposed model is based on nine water quality parameters: temperature, pH value, electrical conductivity, oxygen saturation, biological oxygen demand, suspended solids, nitrogen oxides, orthophosphates, and ammonium. It is created in software Netica and tested and verified using the data covering the period 2013–2019 from five locations in Vojvodina Province, Serbia. Forty-eight samples are used to train the model. Once trained, the Naïve Bayes model correctly predicted the class of water sample in 64 out of 68 cases, including cases with missing data. This recommends it as a trustful tool in the transition from traditional to digital water management.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 271
Nouf F. Al-Harby ◽  
Ebtehal F. Albahly ◽  
Nadia A. Mohamed

Novel Uracil-modified chitosan (UCs) adsorbent has successfully been synthesized through a four-step method during which the amino groups of chitosan have been protected, then epoxy nuclei have been incorporated, afterwards the latter have been opened using 6-amino-1,3-dimethyl uracil, and finally the amino groups have been regained via removing the protection. Its structure was checked using FTIR, XRD and SEM techniques. The adsorption capacity of UCs for anionic Congo Red (CR) dye was studied under various conditions. It decreased significantly with increasing the solution pH value and dye concentration, while increased with increasing temperature. The adsorption of UCs for CR dye at different temperatures, solution pH and dye concentrations fitted to the kinetic model of pseudo-second order and Elovich model. The intraparticle diffusion model showed that the adsorption process involves multi-step process. The isotherm of CR dye adsorption by UCs conforms to the Langmuir isotherm model indicating the monolayer nature of adsorption. The maximum monolayer coverage capacity, qmax, was 434.78 mg g−1. Studying the thermodynamic showed that the adsorption of CR dye onto UCs was endothermic as illustrated from the positive value of enthalpy (21.37 kJ mol−1). According to the values of ΔG°, the adsorption process was spontaneous at all selected temperatures. The value of ΔS° showed an increase in randomness for the adsorption of CR dye by UCs. The value of activation energy was 18.40 kJ mol−1.

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