microbial biomass
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2022 ◽  
Vol 326 ◽  
pp. 107798
Liang Wei ◽  
Tida Ge ◽  
Zhenke Zhu ◽  
Rongzhong Ye ◽  
Josep Peñuelas ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 325 ◽  
pp. 107718
Teal S. Potter ◽  
Léa Vereecke ◽  
Richard A. Lankau ◽  
Gregg R. Sanford ◽  
Erin M. Silva ◽  

2022 ◽  
Zheng Zhang ◽  
Penghui He ◽  
Shiying Hu ◽  
Yanqing Yu ◽  
Xiaoting Wang ◽  

Abstract Objective: The production of some bio-chemicals affected by the cell growth. This study aimed at promoting the cell growth by overexpressing the synthesis of peptidoglycans tetrapeptide tail components to improve poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) production. Results: L-alanine, D-alanine and D-alanyl-D-alanine are primary precursors for the synthesis of peptidoglycans. The addition of L-alanine and D-alanine significantly increased both the cell growth and production of γ-PGA. Then, several genes encoding key enzymes for L/D-alanine and D-alanyl-D-alanine biosynthesis were overexpressed respectively, including ald (encoding alanine dehydrogenase), dal (encoding alanine racemase) and ddl (encoding D-alanine ligase). The results showed that the overexpression of genes ald , dal and ddl increased the production of γ-PGA by 19.72%, 15.91% and 60.90%, and increased the microbial biomass by 15.58%, 18.34% and 49.85%, respectively. Moreover, we demonstrated that the overexpression of genes ald , dal and ddl increased γ-PGA production mainly by enhancing cell growth rather than providing more precursors. Conclusions: This work illustrated the importance of the L/D-alanine and D-alanyl-D-alanine synthesis to the cell growth and the high yield of γ-PGA, and provided an effective strategy for producing γ-PGA .

Speranza Claudia Panico ◽  
Valeria Memoli ◽  
Lucia Santorufo ◽  
Stefania Aiello ◽  
Rossella Barile ◽  

The knowledge of the effects of fire on soil properties is of particular concern in Mediterranean areas, where the effects of vegetation type are still scarce also. This research aimed: to assess the properties of burnt soils under different vegetation types; to highlight the soil abiotic properties driving the soil microbial biomass and activity under each vegetation type; to compare the biological response in unburnt and burnt soils under the same vegetation type, and between unburnt and burnt soils under different vegetation types. The soils were collected at a Mediterranean area where a large wildfire caused a 50% loss of the previous vegetation types (holm oak: HO, pine: P, black locust: BL, and herbs: H), and were characterized by abiotic (pH, water, and organic matter contents; N concentrations; and C/N ratios) and biotic (microbial and fungal biomasses, microbial respiration, soil metabolic quotient, and hydrolase and dehydrogenase activities) properties. The biological response was evaluated by the Integrative Biological Responses (IBR) index. Before the fire, organic matter and N contents were significantly higher in P than H soils. After the fire, significant increases of pH, organic matter, C/N ratio, microbial biomass and respiration, and hydrolase and dehydrogenase activities were observed in all the soils, especially under HO. In conclusion, the post-fire soil conditions were less favorable for microorganisms, as the IBR index decreased when compared to the pre-fire conditions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Chengjiao Duan ◽  
Yuxia Mei ◽  
Qiang Wang ◽  
Yuhan Wang ◽  
Qi Li ◽  

Some studies have reported the importance of rhizobium in mitigating heavy metal toxicity, however, the regulatory mechanism of the alfalfa-rhizobium symbiosis to resist copper (Cu) stress in the plant-soil system through biochemical reactions is still unclear. This study assessed the effects of rhizobium (Sinorhizobium meliloti CCNWSX0020) inoculation on the growth of alfalfa and soil microbial characteristics under Cu-stress. Further, we determined the regulatory mechanism of rhizobium inoculation to alleviate Cu-stress in alfalfa through plant-soil system. The results showed that rhizobium inoculation markedly alleviated Cu-induced growth inhibition in alfalfa by increasing the chlorophyll content, height, and biomass, in addition to nitrogen and phosphorus contents. Furthermore, rhizobium application alleviated Cu-induced phytotoxicity by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities and soluble protein content in tissues, and inhibiting the lipid peroxidation levels (i.e., malondialdehyde content). In addition, rhizobium inoculation improved soil nutrient cycling, which increased soil enzyme activities (i.e., β-glucosidase activity and alkaline phosphatase) and microbial biomass nitrogen. Both Pearson correlation coefficient analysis and partial least squares path modeling (PLS-PM) identified that the interactions between soil nutrient content, enzyme activity, microbial biomass, plant antioxidant enzymes, and oxidative damage could jointly regulate plant growth. This study provides comprehensive insights into the mechanism of action of the legume-rhizobium symbiotic system to mitigate Cu stress and provide an efficient strategy for phytoremediation of Cu-contaminated soils.

Yuhong Li ◽  
Zhenke Zhu ◽  
Xiaomeng Wei ◽  
Yakov Kuzyakov ◽  
Baozhen Li ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
pp. 331-350
Gabriel Danilo Shimizu ◽  
Jean Carlo Baudraz de Paula ◽  
Adriana Pereira da Silva ◽  
Camilla de Andrade Pacheco ◽  

Proper soil cover management for citrus cultivation can contribute to increased productivity and improved soil quality. This study examined five different vegetative coverings [Urochloa brizantha; U. decumbens, U. ruziziensis, spontaneous vegetation, and herbicide application (glyphosate) in the total area] in the inter rows of a Natal orange orchard [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] grafted on the Swingle citrumelo (C. paradisi × Poncirus trifoliata). Their effects on the microbiological and chemical attributes of the soil and the vegetative development in the orchard were examined. Chemical (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, P, pH, H+Al, CECpH7, base saturation, and OM) and microbiological (carbon and nitrogen of microbial biomass, basal respiration, and metabolic quotient) soil attributes in the rows and inter-rows were evaluated for the orchard in 2018 and 2019. There was a significant difference for most variables in the 2 years studied, emphasizing 2019 for microbiological parameters and OM, with the latter being 14.8% lower in the treatment with glyphosate in the total area compared to the treatment with spontaneous vegetation. The results showed the benefits of vegetation cover with brachiaria in inter-rows of the Natal sweet orange orchard in the chemical and microbiological attributes of the soil, especially in carbon and nitrogen of the microbial biomass.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
M. M. Rahman ◽  
Md. Rafiqul Islam ◽  
Shihab Uddin ◽  
Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman ◽  
Ahmed Gaber ◽  

Soil acidification and charland formation through alluvial sand deposition are emerging threats to food security in Bangladesh in that they endanger crop production in about 35% of its territory. The integrated plant nutrient system (IPNS) is a globally accepted nutrient management approach designed to revive the damaged soils’ fertility level. Total organic carbon (TOC) in soil is a composite index of soil quality that has consequences for agricultural productivity and natural soil ecosystems. This study assesses the impacts of using biochar, compost, poultry litter, and vermicompost-based IPNS approaches on labile and TOC pools, TOC stocks, lability and management indices, and microbial populations under different cropping patterns after 2 years in acidic and charland soils. The application of IPNS treatments increased microbial biomass carbon (MBC) by 9.1–50.0% in acidic soil and 8.8–41.2% in charland soil compared to the untreated soil, with the largest increase in poultry manure biochar (PMB). Microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) rose from 20 to 180% in charland soil compared to the control, although no effect was observed in acidic soil. Basal respiration (BR) rose by 43–429% in acidic soil and 16–189% in charland soil compared to the control, exhibiting the highest value in PMB. IPNS treatments significantly improved SOC and POC but did not affect POXc and bulk density in both soils. The PMB and organic fertilizer (OF, compost)-based IPNS wielded the greatest influence on the lability index of MBC in acidic soils and the management index of MBC in both soils. This is despite the fact that IPNS did not affect the lability and management indices of active carbon (AC). IPNS treatments increased the stocks of SOC and MBC in both the soils and POC stock in acidic soil. IPNS treatments significantly boosted the bacterial and fungal populations in both soils, despite having no effect on phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria (PSB). Thus, PMB and OF (compost)-based IPNS may be a better nutrient management practice in degraded acidic and charland soils. This is especially the case in terms of soil quality improvement, soil carbon sequestration, and microbial enrichment.

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