The unsteady force response of an accelerating flat plate, subjected to controlled spanwise bending, is investigated experimentally. The flat plate was held normal to the flow (at an angle of attack of
), and it was dynamically bent along the spanwise direction with the help of internal actuation. Two bending directions were tested. In one case, part of the plate (denoted by flexion ratio) was bent into the incoming flow (the bend-down configuration). In another case, the plate was bent away from the flow (the bend-up configuration). We used two different aspect ratio (
) plates, namely
$AR = 2$
and 3. Three acceleration numbers, namely
$A_c = 0.57$
, 1.6 and 3.2 (corresponding to dimensional acceleration of 0.036, 0.1 and 0.2 m s
, respectively) were tested with a fixed terminal Reynolds number (Re) of 18 000. For each acceleration number, three bending durations, namely 1.2, 2.4 and 3.6 s were implemented. The results indicate that the highest impulse was imparted by the highest bending rate (duration 1.2 s) during all three accelerations tested. We show that controlled spanwise bending can significantly change the unsteady force response by manipulating the inertial forces during a start-up manoeuvre. The unsteady forces depend on the vector sum of the forward acceleration and the bending acceleration of the plate. The unsteady drag was augmented when the plate was bent towards the incoming flow. The initial force peaks were significantly reduced when the bending direction was reversed. The development of the edge vortices from the flat plate was measured with the help of particle image velocimetry (PIV) at the 70 % and the 90 % span locations. The PIV measurements were also carried out at the midchord plane closer to the tip region to capture the growth of the tip vortex. The vorticity field calculated from these PIV measurements revealed that controlled bending contributed to a variation in the circulation growth of the edge vortices. During the bend-down case, the circulation growth was faster and the tip vortices stayed closer to the plate. This resulted in increased interaction with the edge vortex at the 90 % span. This interaction was more severe for
$AR = 2$
. During the bend-up case, the growth of the edge vortex was delayed, but the vortex grew for a longer time compared with the bend-down case. Finally, a mathematical model is presented which correctly captured the trend of the force histories measured experimentally during both the bend-up and bend-down cases.
In this paper, a novel Contra-Rotating Open Rotor (CROR) noise reduction methodology based upon the anhedral blade tip applied to the front blade is developed. Results indicate that anhedral blade tip can provide noise reduction over 60 deg. polar angle range in both upstream and downstream areas at takeoff condition. The noise reduction becomes more significant as the lean angle of anhedral blade tip increases, and the maximum noise reduction is over 4 dB. Further analysis shows that anhedral blade tip decreases the strength and size of blade tip vortex shed from the front blade, and reduces its interaction with the rear rotor, which decreases the fluctuation of loading acting on the rear rotor and its loading noise. Furthermore, the anhedral blade tip does not have strong effect on the aerodynamic performance of CROR at cruise.
The gas-solid two-phase flow model is constructed based on the Euler-Lagrangian framework. The SST k−ω two-equation turbulence model and the soft ball model are coupled by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and a discrete element model (DEM). Brownout is then simulated by the above method with sliding mesh. As the calculation examples show, the simulations and experiments of the Lynx rotor and the Caradonna–Tung rotor are compared. The coupling method is verified through calculation of the rotor lift coefficient, blade section pressure coefficient and tip vortex shedding position. The results show that when the helicopter is hovering at a height of 0.52R from the ground, it will cause brownout and the pilot’s vision will be obscured by sand. When the hovering height is 1R, the phenomenon of brownout is not serious. The movement speed of most sand dust is about 12 m/s, and the height of the sand dust from the ground will gradually increase over time. Large particles of sand are more difficult to be entrained into the air than the small particles, and the particles with a radius of 50 um are basically accumulated on the ground. Moreover, the slotted-Tip rotor has an effect on restraining brownout.
AbstractThe blade tip vortex system is a crucial feature in the wake of helicopter rotors, and its correct prediction represents a major challenge in the numerical simulation of rotor flows. A common phenomenon in modern high-fidelity CFD simulations is the breakdown of the primary vortex system in hover due to secondary vortex braids. Since they are strongly influenced by the numerical settings, the degree to which these secondary vortex structures actually physically occur is still discussed and needs experimental validation. In the current work, the development of secondary vortex structures in the wake of a two-bladed rotor in hover conditions was investigated by combining stereoscopic particle image velocimetry measurements in different measurement planes and high-fidelity simulations. Secondary vortex structures were detected and quantified at different axial locations in the wake by applying an identical scheme to the measured and simulated velocity data. In agreement, it was found that the number of secondary vortices is maximum at a distance of $$0.8\,R$$
below the rotor. The more intense secondary vortex structures were quantitatively well captured in the simulation, whereas in the experiment a larger number of weaker vortices were detected. No distinct preferential direction of rotation was found for the secondary vortices, but they tended to develop in vortex pairs with alternating sense of rotation. A clustered occurrence of secondary vortices was observed close to the primary tip vortices, where the rolled-up blade shear layer breaks down into coherent vortex structures.
Blade vortex interaction noise is a problematic and dominant component of rotor noise. Plasma actuators strategically placed at the tip of the rotor blades can reduce the strength of the tip vortices. This reduction has the potential to significantly reduce blade vortex interaction noise. A combined experimental, numerical, and theoretical program shows supporting evidence that low power plasma actuators can effectively lower coherence of the blade tip vortex and reduce blade vortex interaction noise over-pressure by up to 80%. For a nominal small five-bladed unmanned aerial vehicle, we predict an approximate 8.88 maximum ΔdB reduction for a 150 m/s tip speed. Experimental, computational, and acoustic modeling support these predictions. This study represents a fundamental investigation in the fixed-frame, which provides evidence for higher level research and testing in a rotating framework.
The effects of chordwise deformation and the half-amplitude asymmetry on the hydrodynamic performance and vortex dynamics of batoid fish have been numerically investigated, in which the two parameters were represented by the wavenumber (
) and the ratio of the half-amplitude above the longitudinal axis to that below (
). Fin kinematics were prescribed based on biological data. Simulations were conducted using the immersed boundary method. It was found that moderate chordwise deformation enhances the thrust, saves the power and increases the efficiency. A large
can also increase thrust performance. By using the derivative-moment transformation theory at several subdomains to capture the local vortical structures and a force decomposition, it was shown that, at high Strouhal numbers (
), the tip vortex is the main source of thrust, whereas the leading-edge vortex (LEV) and trailing-edge vortex weaken the thrust generation. However, at lower
, the LEV would enhance the thrust. The least deformation (
) leads to the largest effective angle of attack, and thus the strongest vortices. However, moderate deformation (
) has an optimal balance between the performance enhancement and the opposite effect of different local structures. The performance enhancement of
was also due to the increase of the vortical contributions. This work provides a new insight into the role of vortices and the force enhancement mechanism in aquatic swimming.
A study of the instantaneous and average velocity and vorticity fields in the flow created by the model helicopter rotor in the hover mode was carried out. The velocity fields of the flow generated by the model rotor were obtained by a two-dimensional TR PIV system, which provided two components of the velocity vector in the diagnostic light plane. The processing of the obtained raw images was carried out using a two-frame algorithm with adaptive interrogation windows. The experiments carried out have shown the possibility of using the PIV technique to visualize the tip vortex structure descending from the rotor blade. This possibility seems to be especially interesting as one of the means of validation of the numerical methods for calculating rotor aerodynamics and acoustics.