fundamental investigation
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Metals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 74
Christoph Zschiesche ◽  
Jürgen Antrekowitsch

The processing of polymetallic materials provides some challenges to every flowsheet. Within Aurubis Cu-Pb-metallurgical flowsheet, a broad range of raw materials and intermediates are processed. Continuous improvements are required to adapt the flowsheet according to the changing material quantity and quality. Therefore, thermodynamic modeling is the desired and most efficient way to conduct scenario analysis. Hence, databases and software are becoming better and better as the acceptance of this method increased. Further understanding is promoted by conducting experimental test work to validate the calculated results. In this research work, the impact of various oxygen potential on the formation of the condensed phases’ slag, matte, speiss and crude lead were investigated. A frequent check of slag metallurgy, in particular, the iron and lead concentration, provide feedback if the metallurgical process is operating at the right oxygen potential. Following, the calculated distribution coefficients for Cu, Pb, As, Sb, Sn and Ni between matte/speiss and speiss/lead are discussed.

2022 ◽  
pp. 113365
Jianning Chu ◽  
Xin Liu ◽  
Changlin Liu ◽  
Jianguo Zhang ◽  
Junfeng Xiao ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 28 (12) ◽  
pp. 123502
I. A. Aponte ◽  
B. Esser ◽  
James C. Dickens ◽  
John J. Mankowski ◽  
Andreas A. Neuber

2021 ◽  
pp. 1475472X2110526
Trushant K Patel ◽  
Alexander J Lilley ◽  
Weiqi Shen ◽  
Christian Porrello ◽  
Alexander Schindler-Tyka ◽  

Blade vortex interaction noise is a problematic and dominant component of rotor noise. Plasma actuators strategically placed at the tip of the rotor blades can reduce the strength of the tip vortices. This reduction has the potential to significantly reduce blade vortex interaction noise. A combined experimental, numerical, and theoretical program shows supporting evidence that low power plasma actuators can effectively lower coherence of the blade tip vortex and reduce blade vortex interaction noise over-pressure by up to 80%. For a nominal small five-bladed unmanned aerial vehicle, we predict an approximate 8.88 maximum ΔdB reduction for a 150 m/s tip speed. Experimental, computational, and acoustic modeling support these predictions. This study represents a fundamental investigation in the fixed-frame, which provides evidence for higher level research and testing in a rotating framework.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 34
Yoshie Yamamoto ◽  
Shuichi Wakimoto ◽  
Takefumi Kanda ◽  
Daisuke Yamaguchi

In our study, a soft robot arm consisting of McKibben artificial muscles and a silicone rubber structure was developed. This robot arm can perform bending and twisting motions by ap-plying pneumatic pressure to the artificial muscles. The robot arm is made of flexible materials only, and therefore it has high flexibility and shape adaptability. In this report on the fundamental investigation of the master–slave feedback control of the soft robot arm for intentional operation, we focus on the bending motion of the soft robot arm. Three flexible strain sensors were placed on the soft robot arm for measuring the bending motion. By establishing a master–slave feedback system using the sensors, the bending motion of the soft robot arm followed the operator’s wrist motion detected via the wearable interface device.

2021 ◽  
Takashi Fukue ◽  
Koichi Hirasawa

Abstract This study describes the development of an evaluation method of uncertainty in temperature measurement of surface-mounted components by several types of thermocouples. When thermocouples conduct the temperature measurement of the surface-mounted components, the components’ temperature decreases because the thermocouples dissipate heat like a pin fin. Temperature measurement techniques for miniaturized electrical components are strongly needed to ensure the operation’s guaranteed temperature. In this report, a heat transfer experiment around thermocouples installed on the surface of the PCBs was conducted while changing the type and the mounting angle of thermocouples. Through the temperature measurement, the decrease of the temperature around the thermocouples was confirmed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (20) ◽  
pp. 9492
Christina Insam ◽  
Lisa-Marie Ballat ◽  
Felix Lorenz ◽  
Daniel Jean Rixen

For a targeted development process of foot prostheses, a profound understanding of the dynamic interaction between humans and prostheses is necessary. In engineering, an often employed method to investigate the dynamics of mechanical systems is Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL). This study conducted a fundamental investigation of whether HiL could be an applicable method to study the dynamics of an amputee wearing a prosthesis. For this purpose, a suitable HiL setup is presented and the first-ever HiL test of a prosthetic foot performed. In this setup, the prosthetic foot was tested on the test bench and coupled in real-time to a cosimulation of the amputee. The amputee was modeled based on the Virtual Pivot Point (VPP) model, and one stride was performed. The Center of Mass (CoM) trajectory, the Ground Reaction Forces (GRFs), and the hip torque were qualitatively analyzed. The results revealed that the basic gait characteristics of the VPP model can be replicated in the HiL test. Still, there were several limitations in the presented HiL setup, such as the limited actuator performance. The results implied that HiL may be a suitable method for testing foot prostheses. Future work will therefore investigate whether changes in the gait pattern can be observed by using different foot prostheses in the HiL test.

2021 ◽  
Julian Ferchow ◽  
Marvin Bühler ◽  
Marcel Schlüssel ◽  
Livia Zumofen ◽  
Christoph Klahn ◽  

Abstract Automated clamping for post-processing of mass-customized parts is a challenging step in the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) process chain. In this study, a novel modular sheet metal clamping system was developed that uses disposable sheet metal profiles as a universal interface for the LPBF, robotic handling, and milling processes. Based on a fundamental investigation of hybrid additive manufacturing, the sheet metal clamping system was designed to use the same interface for the LPBF and milling processes. Subsequent an end-to-end validation was performed for the entire process chain. The concept of the sheet metal clamping system gives milling tools access to a part on five to six sides. Further, the part can be accessed from the top and bottom sides, and simplifying the removal of LPBF supports. No clamping forces are induced in the LPBF part, which is especially important for filigree structures. The sheet metal clamping system’s underlying concept could be adapted to automating the LPBF process chain for applications such as prosthetic dentistry.

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