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Hydrology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 15
Author(s):  
Lavane Kim ◽  
Nguyen Truong Thanh ◽  
Pham Van Toan ◽  
Huynh Vuong Thu Minh ◽  
Pankaj Kumar

Because of its threat to the quality of freshwater resources and human health, arsenic (As) pollution is important to scientific communities and policymakers around the world. The Mekong Delta, Vietnam, is one hotspot of As pollution. Its risk assessment of different environmental components has been well documented; however, very few studies focus on As removal techniques. Considering this information gap, this study aimed to investigate the performance of an innovative and low-cost treatment system using Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide (FeOOH) coated sand to remove As(III) from aqueous solution. Batch and column experiments were conducted at a laboratory scale in order to study removal kinetics and efficiency. Experimental results indicated that the adsorption isotherm of As(III) on FeOOH coated sand using Langmuir and Freundlich models have high regression factors of 0.987 and 0.991, respectively. The batch adsorption experiment revealed that contact time was approximately 8 h for rough saturation (kinetic test). The concentration of As(III) in effluents at flow rates of 0.6 L/h, 0.9 L/h, and 1.8 L/h ranged from 1.1 µg/L to 1.7 µg/L. Results from this study indicated that FeOOH coated sand columns were effective in removing As(III) from water, with a removal efficiency of 99.1%. Ultimately, FeOOH coated sand filtration could be a potential treatment system to reduce As(III) in the domestic water supply in remote areas of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta.


Hydrology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 13
Author(s):  
Teshager A. Negatu ◽  
Fasikaw A. Zimale ◽  
Tammo S. Steenhuis

A significant constraint in water resource development in developing countries is the lack of accurate river discharge data. Stage–discharge measurements are infrequent, and rating curves are not updated after major storms. Therefore, the objective is to develop accurate stage–discharge rating curves with limited measurements. The Lake Tana basin in the upper reaches of the Blue Nile in the Ethiopian Highlands is typical for the lack of reliable streamflow data in Africa. On average, one stage–discharge measurement per year is available for the 21 gaging stations over 60 years or less. To obtain accurate and unique stage–discharge curves, the discharge was expressed as a function of the water level and a time-dependent offset from zero. The offset was expressed as polynomial functions of time (up to order 4). The rating curve constants and the coefficients for the polynomial were found by minimizing the errors between observed and predicted fluxes for the available stage–discharge data. It resulted in unique rating curves with R2 > 0.85 for the four main rivers. One of the river bottoms of the alluvial channels increased in height by up to 3 m in 60 years. In the upland channels, most offsets changed by less than 50 cm. The unique rating curves that account for temporal riverbed changes can aid civil engineers in the design of reservoirs, water managers in improving reservoir management, programmers in calibration and validation of hydrology models and scientists in ecological research.


Hydrology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 14
Author(s):  
Esteban Caligaris ◽  
Margherita Agostini ◽  
Rudy Rossetto

Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR), the intentional recharge of aquifers, has surged worldwide in the last 60 years as one of the options to preserve and increase water resources availability. However, estimating the extent of the area impacted by the recharge operations is not an obvious task. In this descriptive study, we monitored the spatiotemporal variation of the groundwater temperature in a phreatic aquifer before and during MAR operations, for 15 days, at the LIFE REWAT pilot infiltration basin using surface water as recharge source. The study was carried out in the winter season, taking advantage of the existing marked difference in temperature between the surface water (cold, between 8 and 13 °C, and in quasi-equilibrium with the air temperature) and the groundwater temperature, ranging between 10 and 18 °C. This difference in heat carried by groundwater was then used as a tracer. Results show that in the experiment the cold infiltrated surface water moved through the aquifer, allowing us to identify the development and extension in two dimensions of the recharge plume resulting from the MAR infiltration basin operations. Forced convection is the dominant heat transport mechanism. Further data, to be gathered at high frequency, and modeling analyses using the heat distribution at different depths are needed to identify the evolution of the recharge bulb in the three-dimensional space.


Hydrology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 12
Author(s):  
Mouhamed Idrissou ◽  
Bernd Diekkrüger ◽  
Bernhard Tischbein ◽  
Felix Op de Hipt ◽  
Kristian Näschen ◽  
...  

Water scarcity for smallholder farming in West Africa has led to the shift of cultivation from uplands to inland valleys. This study investigates the impacts of climate and land use/land cover (LULC) change on water resources in an intensively instrumented inland valley catchment in Southwestern Burkina Faso. An ensemble of five regional climate models (RCMs) and two climate scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) was utilized to drive a physically-based hydrological model WaSiM after calibration and validation. The impact of climate change was quantified by comparing the projected period (2021–2050) and a reference period (1971–2000). The result showed a large uncertainty in the future change of runoff between the RCMs. Three models projected an increase in the total runoff from +12% to +95%, whereas two models predicted a decrease from −44% to −24%. Surface runoff was projected to show the highest relative change compared to the other runoff components. The projected LULC 2019, 2025, and 2030 were estimated based on historical LULC change (1990–2013) using the Land Change Modeler (LCM). A gradual conversion of savanna to cropland was shown, with annual rates rom 1 to 3.3%. WaSiM was used to simulate a gradual increase in runoff with time caused by this land use change. The combined climate and land use change was estimated using LULC-2013 in the reference period and LULC-2030 as future land use. The results suggest that land use change exacerbates the increase in total runoff. The increase in runoff was found to be +158% compared to the reference period but only +52% without land use change impacts. This stresses the fact that land use change impact is not negligible in this area, and climate change impact assessments without land use change analysis might be misleading. The results of this study can be used as input to water management models in order to derive strategies to cope with present and future water scarcities for smallholder farming in the investigated area.


Hydrology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 11
Author(s):  
Ingrid Luffman ◽  
Daniel Connors

Volunteered Geographic Information, data contributed by community scientists, is an increasingly popular tool to collect scientific data, involve the community in scientific research, and provide information and education about a prominent issue. Johnson City, Tennnessee, USA has a long history of downtown flooding, and recent redevelopment of two land parcels has created new city parks that mitigate flooding through floodwater storage, additional channel capacity, and reduced impervious surfaces. At Founders Park, a project to collect stage data using text messages from community scientists has collected 1479 stage measurements from 597 participants from May 2017 through July 2021. Text messages were parsed to extract the stage and merged with local precipitation data to assess the stream’s response to precipitation. Of 1479 observations, 96.7% were correctly parsed. Only 3% of observations were false positives (parser extracted incorrect stage value) or false negatives (parser unable to extract correct value but usable data were reported). Less than 2% of observations were received between 11 p.m. and 7 a.m., creating an overnight data gap, and fewer than 7% of observations were made during or immediately following precipitation. Regression models for stage using antecedent precipitation explained 21.6% of the variability in stream stage. Increased participation and development of an automated system to record stage data at regular intervals will provide data to validate community observations and develop more robust rainfall–runoff models.


Hydrology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 10
Author(s):  
Edwin Pino-Vargas ◽  
Eduardo Chávarri-Velarde ◽  
Eusebio Ingol-Blanco ◽  
Fabricio Mejía ◽  
Ana Cruz ◽  
...  

Global projections of climate change indicate negative impacts on hydrological systems, with significant changes in precipitation and temperature in many parts of the world. As a result, floods and droughts are expected. This article discusses the potential effects of climate change and variability on the maximum precipitation, temperature, and hydrological regime in Devil’s Creek, Tacna, Peru. The outputs of precipitation and daily temperature of fifteen regional climate models were used for the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission scenarios. The methodology used includes the bias correction and downscaling of meteorological variables using the quintiles mapping technique, hydrological modeling, the evaluation of two emission scenarios, and its effect on the maximum flows of the stream. The results of the multi-model ensemble show that the maximum annual precipitation will probably increase by more than 30% for the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios for the 2021–2050 period relative to the 1981–2005 period. Likewise, as expected, the maximum flows could increase by 220% and 154% for the RCP4.5 scenarios for the 2021–2050 and 2051–2080 terms, respectively, and 234% and 484% for the RCP8.5 scenarios and for the 2021–2050 and 2051–2080 terms, respectively, concerning the recorded historical value, increasing the probability of flood events and damage in populations located downstream.


Hydrology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 9
Author(s):  
Saeid Mehdizadeh ◽  
Babak Mohammadi ◽  
Farshad Ahmadi

Potential of a classic adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was evaluated in the current study for estimating the daily dew point temperature (Tdew). The study area consists of two stations located in Iran, namely the Rasht and Urmia. The daily Tdew time series of the studied stations were modeled through the other effective variables comprising minimum air temperature (Tmin), extraterrestrial radiation (Ra), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), sunshine duration (n), and relative humidity (RH). The correlation coefficients between the input and output parameters were utilized to determine the most effective inputs. Furthermore, novel hybrid models were proposed in this study in order to increase the estimation accuracy of Tdew. For this purpose, two optimization algorithms named bee colony optimization (BCO) and dragonfly algorithm (DFA) were coupled on the classic ANFIS. It was concluded that the hybrid models (i.e., ANFIS-BCO and ANFIS-DFA) demonstrated better performances compared to the classic ANFIS. The full-input pattern of the coupled models, specifically the ANFIS-DFA, was found to present the most accurate results for both the selected stations. Therefore, the developed hybrid models can be proposed as alternatives to the classic ANFIS to accurately estimate the daily Tdew.


Hydrology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 8
Author(s):  
Giuseppe Formetta ◽  
Glenn Tootle ◽  
Giacomo Bertoldi

The Adige River Basin (ARB) provides a vital water supply source for varying demands including agriculture (wine production), energy (hydropower) and municipal water supply. Given the importance of this river system, information about past (paleo) drought and pluvial (wet) periods would quantity risk to water managers and planners. Annual streamflow data were obtained for four gauges that were spatially located within the upper ARB. The Old World Drought Atlas (OWDA) provides an annual June–July–August (JJA) self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI) derived from 106 tree-ring chronologies for 5414 grid points across Europe from 0 to 2012 AD. In lieu of tree-ring chronologies, the OWDA dataset was used as a proxy to reconstruct both individual gauge and ARB regional streamflow from 0 to 2012. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the four ARB streamflow gauges to generate one representative vector of regional streamflow. This regional streamflow vector was highly correlated with the four individual gauges, as coefficient of determination (R2) values ranged from 85% to 96%. Prescreening methods included correlating annual streamflow and scPDSI cells (within a 450 km radius) in which significant (p ≤ 0.01 or 99% significance) scPDSI cells were identified. The significant scPDSI cells were then evaluated for temporal stability to ensure practical and reliable reconstructions. Statistically significant and temporally stable scPDSI cells were used as predictors (independent variables) to reconstruct streamflow (predictand or dependent variable) for both individual gauges and at the regional scale. This resulted in highly skillful reconstructions of upper ARB streamflow from 0 to 2012 AD. Multiple drought and pluvial periods were identified in the paleo record that exceed those observed in the recent, historic record. Moreover, this study concurred with streamflow reconstructions in nearby European watersheds.


Hydrology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 7
Author(s):  
Bachisio Mario Padedda ◽  
Antonella Lugliè ◽  
Giuseppina Grazia Lai ◽  
Filippo Giadrossich ◽  
Cecilia Teodora Satta ◽  
...  

In water management plans, all human impacts on the aquatic environment are quantified and evaluated. For this purpose, lake-related assessment methods of watersheds are needed. The aim of this study is to present the environmental condition along the watershed–lake continuum of Lake Baratz, located in the northeastern part of Sardinia. We provide a method to evaluate the impact of a small watershed area on the trophic state of this ancient Mediterranean natural lake. This study demonstrates the potentialities of coupling simple land structure-based models with empirical ones, allowing one to hierarchize, interpret, and predict the relationships among the watershed ecological unity and lake trophic conditions at multiple spatial and temporal scales. It also demonstrates how the impact of single and interacting nutrient stressors can have a different impact on the trophic status which, in particular, applies to autotrophs, constituting a key response in the ecosystem. We suggest that the stressor hierarchy should be considered as a way of prioritizing actions in the cost-effective implementation of conservation and management plans.


Hydrology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 5
Author(s):  
Evangelos Rozos ◽  
Panayiotis Dimitriadis ◽  
Vasilis Bellos

Machine learning has been employed successfully as a tool virtually in every scientific and technological field. In hydrology, machine learning models first appeared as simple feed-forward networks that were used for short-term forecasting, and have evolved into complex models that can take into account even the static features of catchments, imitating the hydrological experience. Recent studies have found machine learning models to be robust and efficient, frequently outperforming the standard hydrological models (both conceptual and physically based). However, and despite some recent efforts, the results of the machine learning models require significant effort to interpret and derive inferences. Furthermore, all successful applications of machine learning in hydrology are based on networks of fairly complex topology that require significant computational power and CPU time to train. For these reasons, the value of the standard hydrological models remains indisputable. In this study, we suggest employing machine learning models not as a substitute for hydrological models, but as an independent tool to assess their performance. We argue that this approach can help to unveil the anomalies in catchment data that do not fit in the employed hydrological model structure or configuration, and to deal with them without compromising the understanding of the underlying physical processes.


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