information gap
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2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (3) ◽  
pp. 611-615
Zainal Abidin ◽  
Muhamad Riyad ◽  
Budi Panca

The reality that is happening in the world globally today is experiencing turbulence, so the impact is that many things are changing rapidly (volatality), uncertainty (uncertainty), complex (complexity) and often confusing (ambiguity). Today we see the emergence of strange phenomena that we never imagined would be present before, namely changes that are visible and very significant affect the way of life and the mindset of humans as a whole. The current global education world is facing the so-called technology and information gap between digital immigrants (old teachers who learn technology) and digital natives (students who enjoy and use technology), while there are still teachers who are currently quite stuttering in dealing with students or students who speak technology. These old teachers often find it difficult to change the teaching and learning paradigm, find it difficult to adjust to the latest trends in teaching and digital-based learning media that are developing fast, feel threatened by technology, and feel confused to change. Ideally, teachers should be willing and able to change their mindset, they are old and will soon retire. Teachers must be willing to be open to changing times because teachers are real lifelong learners. Teachers are role models and agents of life change. Keywords: Globalization, Teacher, Volatality, Uncertainty, Complexity, Ambiguity

Hydrology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 15
Lavane Kim ◽  
Nguyen Truong Thanh ◽  
Pham Van Toan ◽  
Huynh Vuong Thu Minh ◽  
Pankaj Kumar

Because of its threat to the quality of freshwater resources and human health, arsenic (As) pollution is important to scientific communities and policymakers around the world. The Mekong Delta, Vietnam, is one hotspot of As pollution. Its risk assessment of different environmental components has been well documented; however, very few studies focus on As removal techniques. Considering this information gap, this study aimed to investigate the performance of an innovative and low-cost treatment system using Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide (FeOOH) coated sand to remove As(III) from aqueous solution. Batch and column experiments were conducted at a laboratory scale in order to study removal kinetics and efficiency. Experimental results indicated that the adsorption isotherm of As(III) on FeOOH coated sand using Langmuir and Freundlich models have high regression factors of 0.987 and 0.991, respectively. The batch adsorption experiment revealed that contact time was approximately 8 h for rough saturation (kinetic test). The concentration of As(III) in effluents at flow rates of 0.6 L/h, 0.9 L/h, and 1.8 L/h ranged from 1.1 µg/L to 1.7 µg/L. Results from this study indicated that FeOOH coated sand columns were effective in removing As(III) from water, with a removal efficiency of 99.1%. Ultimately, FeOOH coated sand filtration could be a potential treatment system to reduce As(III) in the domestic water supply in remote areas of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta.

2022 ◽  
Salvador Vicente Spina ◽  
Marcelo Luiz Campos Vieira ◽  
Cesar Herrera ◽  
Ana Munera Echeverri ◽  
Pamela Rojo ◽  

Objectives To describe the use and findings of cardiopulmonary imaging - chest X-ray (cX-ray), echocardiography (cEcho), chest CT (cCT), lung ultrasound (LUS)) and/or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) - in COVID-19-associated hospitalizations in Latin America (LATAM) Background The SARS-Cov-2 is one of the largest and most active threats to healthcare in living memory. There is an information gap on imaging services resources (ISR) used and their findings during the pandemic in LATAM. Methods This was a multicenter, prospective, observational study of COVID-19 inpatients conducted from March to December 2020 from 12 high-complexity centers in nine LATAM countries. Adults (> 18 yrs) with at least one imaging modality performed, followed from admission until discharge and/or in-hospital death, were included. Results We studied 1435 hospitalized patients (64% males) with a median age of 58 years classified into three regions: 262 from Mexico (Mx), 428 from Central America and Caribbean (CAC), and 745 from South America (SAm). More frequent comorbidities were overweight/obesity (61%), hypertension (45%), and diabetes (27%). During hospitalization, 58% were admitted to ICU. The in-hospital mortality was 28% (95%CI 25-30) highest in Mx (37%). The most frequent cardiopulmonary imaging performed were cCT (61%)-more frequent in Mx and SAm-, and cX-ray (46%) -significantly used in CAC-. The cEcho was carried out in 18%, similarly among regions, and LUS in 7%, more frequently in Mx. The cMRI was performed in only one patient in the cohort. Abnormal findings on the cX-ray were related to peripheral (63%) or basal infiltrates (52%), and in cCT with ground glass infiltrates (89%). Both were more commonly in Mx. In LUS, interstitial syndrome (56%) was the most related abnormal finding, predominantly in Mx and CAC. Conclusions The use and findings of cardiopulmonary imaging in LATAM varied between regions and may have been influenced by clinical needs, the personnel protection measures and/or hospitalization location.

2021 ◽  
Vol 60 (4) ◽  
pp. 219-244
Bartosz Wachnik ◽  
Piotr Pryciński ◽  
Jakub Murawski ◽  
Mirosław Nader

The high IT project failure rate means that the stakeholders start recognizing the need to analyze the factors influencing project success, previously deemed irrelevant in the face of technology, including the agile approach, eliminating project documentation, effective prototyping, information asymmetry between project parties, while also perfecting communication and the methods of knowledge transfer between team members. Currently, IT projects are researched using a holistic approach, seeing an implementation project as a whole, subject to specific regularities, which may not be deduced based on the knowledge of their individual components. We would like to enrich the research perspective with the notion of the information gap. The article aims to evaluate and analyze the information gap in ERP and CRM project implementations. We have researched the information gap from the perspective of project managers on the supplier’s and the client’s sides. The study was conducted in Poland between 2014 and 2021 in a group of medium companies, using qualitative research methods: unstructured interview and direct observation. The study led to a qualitative characterization of the information gap and the identification of its causes and consequences. The presented research result can help achieve three goals, i.e. studying the information gap in the selected group of IT projects, indicating the nature of imperfection in information access by the project participants, and raising awareness amongst project managers regarding risk management issues, especially uncertainty. Reducing the information gap can be used by the transaction parties to implement a strategy of building the object’s resilience to uncertainty and its consequences. These results can help develop methodologies of IT project implementation, limiting the level of risk and uncertainty.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Victor Cid

Before the modern internet and World Wide Web drastically simplified our access to scientific information, accessing the authoritative information of the National Library of Medicine (NLM) from outside the U.S. was for many very difficult. Compared to the totality of people with access to computers globally at the time, only a privileged group of biomedical researchers and practitioners could afford this access. The NLM was making great contributions developing products and collaborations to reduce the information gap for many underserved communities. This article describes a remarkable initiative started from the other end, underserved information users creating a solution to help the international community reach the NLM resources. Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D., the NLM Director and health informatics pioneer, believed in letting users guide the NLM down its path of service. The BITNIS project is a successful example of his leadership philosophy at a turning point in health informatics history.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
Abdullah Almoqbil ◽  
Brian O'Connor ◽  
Richard Anderson ◽  
Jibril Shittu ◽  
Patrick McLeod

Information manipulation for deception continues to evolve at a remarkable rate. Artificial intelligence has greatly reduced the burden of combing through documents for evidence of manipulation; but it has also enabled the development of clever modes of deception. In this study, we modeled deception attacks by examining phishing emails that successfully evaded detection by the Microsoft 365 filtering system. The sample population selected for this study was the University of North Texas students, faculty, staff, alumni and retirees who maintain their university email accounts. The model explains why certain individuals and organizations are selected as targets, and identifies potential counter measures and counter attacks. Over a one-year period, 432 phishing emails with different features, characters, length, context and semantics successfully passed through Microsoft Office 365 filtering system. The targeted population ranged from 18 years old up to those of retirement age; ranged across educational levels from undergraduate through doctoral levels; and ranged across races. The unstructured data was preprocessed by filtering out duplicates to avoid overemphasizing a single attack. The term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF) and distribution of words over documents (topic modeling) were analyzed. Results show that staff and students were the main target audience, and the phishing email volume spiked in the summer and holiday season. The TF-IDF analysis showed that the phishing emails could be categorized under six categories: reward, urgency, job, entertainment, fear, and curiosity. Analysis showed that attackers use information gap theory to bait email recipients to open phishing emails with no subject line or very attractive subject line in about thirty percent of cases. Ambiguity remains the main stimulus used by phishing attackers, while the reinforcements used to misinform the targets range from positive reinforcements (prize, reward) to negative reinforcements (blackmail, potential consequences).

RELC Journal ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 003368822110616
Jian Xu ◽  
Xuyan Qiu

This study examines four learner engagement dimensions (behavioural, cognitive, emotional and social) in pedagogical task performance and provides insights into the effects of two task types (information-seeking and direction-giving) and topic familiarity on learner engagement in a semester-long English course. A total of 28 foreign language learners engaged in eight interactive tasks, and all played the roles of both information-receiver and information-provider alternately under familiar and unfamiliar conditions. Seven measures of engagement and an open-ended questionnaire were employed to understand the learners’ engagement in the tasks and their emotional responses to them. The results revealed that the information-providers produced more words and also spent more time on information-seeking tasks wherein they would exchange information than on direction-giving ones that required them to ask for and provide instructions or directions. This was the case for topics they were unfamiliar with; however, when they were faced with familiar topics, they produced significantly more words, spent more time, and spoke more elaboratively in direction-giving tasks. The information-seeking tasks elicited positive emotions, but the direction-giving tasks yielded mixed feelings, attaching positive emotions to familiar tasks but negative ones to unfamiliar tasks. The pedagogical implications of these findings are discussed.

Buildings ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 617
Demet Dincer ◽  
Ozgur Gocer

The COVID-19 global health crisis has spatial implications concerning social isolation to control the spread of the virus. The preventive measures require travelers to stay in mandatory quarantine for 14 days upon arrival from another country. Due to a shortage of government facilities, more hotels have started to function as quarantine facilities. This research focuses on quarantine hotels in Australia, as one of the first countries to implement an international border restriction, to evaluate the spatial needs of users and what see outcomes can be identified. By primarily focusing on hotel users’ well-being during the isolation period, this paper responds to an information gap regarding the quarantine hotel system by providing user opinions on the negative and positive factors affecting their well-being. A survey with multiple-choice and open-ended questionnaire items was conducted with 54 participants to investigate their experiences in quarantine hotels. Among the nine key sources of well-being, the three highest-scored responses were an operable window (4.7), ventilation (4.5), and natural lighting (4.3). Access to the outdoor environment via a balcony or operable window was an acute and fundamental requirement for guests. Additionally, participants mentioned that they are unwilling to return to the hotel where they spent their quarantine, which raises issues regarding the future of hotels.

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