Abstract The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is a medium-sized carnivore that occurs in different regions of Pakistan, however, still lacks scientific data on its ecology and distribution. The current study investigated the phylogenetic status and diet of the red fox (V.v. griffithii) occurring in Ayubia National Park, Pakistan. Through camera trapping and molecular analysis, we confirmed the occurrence of red fox in the study area. Based on mitochondrial cytochrome B (304 bp) and limited sampling, nearly all red foxes of Ayubia National Park and surrounding Himalayan ranges fall within Holarctic maternal lineage, whereas red foxes found in plains of Pakistan are part of the basal Palearctic maternal lineage. Using 32 scats, we found that red fox diet comprises of 80% animal-based prey species (both wild and domestic) and 19% plant matter. The wild animal prey species included Cape hare (Lepus capensis) and flying squirrel (Pteromyini sp.), which constituted 17% and 15% of diet, respectively. Red foxes infrequently consumed House mouse (Mus musculus), Himalayan Palm civet (Paguma larvata) and sheep (Ovis aries), each comprising around 6% to 9% of red fox diet. The fox species also scavenged on domestic donkey opportunistically. Based on our sampling, our study suggests that the red fox (V.v. griffithii) that occurs in Ayubia National Park and across the lesser Himalayan ranges belongs to Holarctic maternal lineage. The study also highlights consumption of plant seeds by red foxes, indicating it may play an important ecological role in seed dispersal in Ayubia National Park.
Nurses face multiple stressors that can influence their lifestyle, thus affecting their health status. Scarce are the scientific data on the nutritional status of nurses, especially during health crises. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the eating habits of hospital nurses in the context of an exceptional economic situation in Lebanon.
A cross-sectional study was conducted using a web-based questionnaire, targeting a non-random sampling of frontline nurses using the snowball technique. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were carried out. The population of the study included all registered nurses working in the Lebanese hospitals. A total of 533 nurses completed the questionnaire; 500 surveys were selected after excluding the ones presenting conditions that may affect their eating behavior.
The majority of the respondents were women (78.6%) with a mean age of 33 years [18-60] [SD,7.44 years]. Most of them (57.6%) had a crowding index ≥1. The consumption of different food groups decreased during these crises. There was a significant correlation between stress and deterioration of healthy food consumption, which provides beneficial nutrients and minimizes potentially harmful elements, especially for meat (OR 2.388, CI 1.463 to 3.898, P < 0.001). The decrease in monthly income showed a real impact on the consumption of healthy food such as meat (OR 2.181, CI 1.504 to 3.161, P < 001), fruits (OR 1.930, CI 1.289 to 2.888, P = 0.001), and milk and dairy products (OR 1.544, CI 1.039 to 2.295, P = 0.031).
The pandemic and in particular the economic crisis has changed the consumption of healthy food among hospital nurses in Lebanon. Similar research and support may be extended to include other frontline health care workers.
Glottocodes constitute the backbone identification system for the language, dialect and family inventory Glottolog (https://glottolog.org). In this paper, we summarize the motivation and history behind the system of glottocodes and describe the principles and practices of data curation, technical infrastructure and update/version-tracking systematics. Since our understanding of the target domain – the dialects, languages and language families of the entire world – is continually evolving, changes and updates are relatively common. The resulting data is assessed in terms of the FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable) Guiding Principles for scientific data management and stewardship. As such the glottocode-system responds to an important challenge in the realm of Linguistic Linked Data with numerous NLP applications.
This study aims to analyze the role of artificial intelligence (AI) in the Water–Energy–Food (WEF) nexus under the lens of institutional, stakeholder, and innovation theories. Specifically, this study focuses on AI as the technology adopted by companies to promote Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). A structured literature review has been conducted on 94 articles published from 1990 to 2021 in ISI Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar. This study develops an in-depth review of the literature on the main articles arguing about these issues. The findings highlight the increasing relevance of AI in the water, energy, and food industries individually considered, but the study of AI as a connector between water, energy, and food to achieve SDGs is still under investigation. Research on AI for WEF nexus management has adopted mostly a technical perspective, neglecting the relevance of management tools and the business model concept. Most of the articles did not adopt a specific theoretical lens, but scholars recognize the need to adopt a multi-stakeholder approach and the important role played by AI and other digital technologies to address the WEF nexus challenge. This study proposes an integrated approach for managing the nexus through AI technologies to meet sustainable and responsible business models. The gap between research and policy making could be filled by combining scientific data and policy needs with inclusive tools that are technically viable for sustainable resource utilization.
Sleep disturbances, as well as sleep-wake rhythm disorders, are characteristic symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that may head the other clinical signs of this neurodegenerative disease. Age-related structural and physiological changes in the brain lead to changes in sleep patterns. Conditions such as AD affect the cerebral cortex, basal forebrain, locus coeruleus, and the hypothalamus, thus changing the sleep-wake cycle. Sleep disorders likewise adversely affect the course of the disease. Since the sleep quality is important for the proper functioning of the memory, impaired sleep is associated with problems in the related areas of the brain that play a key role in learning and memory functions. In addition to synthetic drugs, utilization of medicinal plants has become popular in the treatment of neurological diseases. Curcuminoids, which are in a diarylheptanoid structure, are the main components of turmeric. Amongst them, curcumin has multiple applications in treatment regimens of various diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity, cancer, inflammatory diseases, and aging. Besides, curcumin has been reported to be effective in different types of neurodegenerative diseases. Scientific studies exclusively showed that curcumin leads significant improvements in the pathological process of AD. Yet, its low solubility hence low bioavailability is the main therapeutic limitation of curcumin. Although previous studies have focused different types of advanced nanoformulations of curcumin, new approaches are needed to solve the solubility problem. This review summarizes the available scientific data, as reported by the most recent studies describing the utilization of curcumin in the treatment of AD and sleep deprivation-related consequences.
Healthcare systems have reached a critical point regarding the question of whether biosimilar substitution should become common practice. To move the discussion forward, the study objective was to investigate the views of experts from medicines agencies and the pharmaceutical industry on the science underpinning interchangeability of biosimilars. We conducted an empirical qualitative study using semi-structured interviews informed by a cross-disciplinary approach encompassing regulatory science, law, and pharmaceutical policy. In total 25 individuals with experience within biologics participated during September 2018–August 2019. Eight participants were EU national medicines authority regulators, and 17 had pharmaceutical industry background: five from two originator-only companies, four from two companies with both biosimilar and originator products, and eight from seven biosimilar-only companies. Two analysts independently conducted inductive content analysis, resulting in data-driven themes capturing the meaning of the data. The participants reported that interchangeability was more than a scientific question of likeness between biosimilar and reference products: it also pertained to regulatory practices and trust. Participants were overall confident in the science behind exchanging biosimilar products for the reference products via switching, i.e., with physician involvement. However, their opinions differed regarding the scientific risk associated with biosimilar substitution, i.e., without physician involvement. Almost all participants saw no need for additional scientific data to support substitution. Moreover, the participants did not believe that switching studies, as required in the US, were appropriate for obtaining scientific certainty due to their small size. It is unclear why biosimilar switching is viewed as scientifically safer than substitution; therefore, we expect greater policy debate on biosimilar substitution in the near future. We urge European and UK policymakers and regulators to clarify their visions for biosimilar substitution; the positions of these two frontrunners are likely to influence other jurisdictions on the future of biosimilar use.
Scientific research in all fields has advanced in complexity and in the amount of data generated. The heterogeneity of data repositories, data meaning and their metadata standards makes this problem even more significant. In spite of several proposals to find and retrieve research data from public repositories, there is still need for more comprehensive retrieval solutions. In this article, we specify and develop a mechanism to search for scientific data that takes advantage of metadata records and semantic methods. We present the conception of our architecture and how we have implemented it in a use case in the agriculture domain.
Volunteered Geographic Information, data contributed by community scientists, is an increasingly popular tool to collect scientific data, involve the community in scientific research, and provide information and education about a prominent issue. Johnson City, Tennnessee, USA has a long history of downtown flooding, and recent redevelopment of two land parcels has created new city parks that mitigate flooding through floodwater storage, additional channel capacity, and reduced impervious surfaces. At Founders Park, a project to collect stage data using text messages from community scientists has collected 1479 stage measurements from 597 participants from May 2017 through July 2021. Text messages were parsed to extract the stage and merged with local precipitation data to assess the stream’s response to precipitation. Of 1479 observations, 96.7% were correctly parsed. Only 3% of observations were false positives (parser extracted incorrect stage value) or false negatives (parser unable to extract correct value but usable data were reported). Less than 2% of observations were received between 11 p.m. and 7 a.m., creating an overnight data gap, and fewer than 7% of observations were made during or immediately following precipitation. Regression models for stage using antecedent precipitation explained 21.6% of the variability in stream stage. Increased participation and development of an automated system to record stage data at regular intervals will provide data to validate community observations and develop more robust rainfall–runoff models.
Introduction:Rhabdophis snakes, which include 27 species, are rear-fanged venomous snakes that are widely distributed from India to East Asia and Russia. Severe envenomation by R. tigrinus (Yamakagashi snake) in Japan and R. subminiatus in Southeast Asia has been reported. The epidemiology of R. tigrinus bites, such as geographical features, the incidence, and changes in the number of bites over time have not been comprehensively examined. Hence, we intended to clarify the epidemiological features of R. tigrinus bites through a careful review of scientific data over the last 50 years in Japan.Methods: Patient records of R. tigrinus bites between 1971 and 2020 at the Japan Snake Institute were examined retrospectively. The following were ascertained: patient characteristics, clinical symptoms, laboratory data, treatment-related factors, and hospital mortality. These variables were compared in the antivenom and the without-antivenom groups.Results: Over the 50-year study period, 43 R. tigrinus bites, including five fatal cases, were encountered. Severe cases of R. tigrinus bites have been treated with antivenom since 1985; however, fatalities occurred in 2006 and 2020. R. tigrinus bite cases have been well-distributed in the western part of Japan since 2000. The mortality rate in the antivenom group was significantly lower in the patient group that was not administered the antivenom (0 vs. 23.8%, p = 0.048).Conclusion: This study clarified the epidemiology of R. tigrinus bites in Japan over a 50-year period. Almost all severe cases of R. tigrinus bites have been treated with the antivenom in the current situation, and fatalities occurred in cases not treated with the antivenom. It is important to diagnose R. tigrinus bites in the early phase of the clinical course. The antivenom, the definitive treatment for R. tigrinus bites, is an unapproved drug. Hence, approval needs to be obtained for the drug.
One of the forms of teaching physics in high schools with a natural science specialization and in the junior courses of universities can be an educational research project. The use of modern open scientific data makes it possible to make the project interesting, modern, relevant and multidisciplinary. The implementation of such a project allows the student to understand some areas of modern scientific research and the relationship between various natural sciences. Direct comparison of the project results with published fundamental research and discussion of the differences obtained are possible. As the first example of a training project, the determination of the frequency of asteroids and large meteorites (of the Tunguska and Chelyabinsk class) falling to Earth by counting craters on the surface of the Moon and Mercury is considered.
Meets the requirements of the federal state educational standards of higher education of the latest generation.
For students of higher educational institutions studying in natural science specialties: physics, astronomy, geography, geology, soil science, biology, etc—, and students of engineering and technical specialties of full-time and distance learning.