The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
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Published By Springer-Verlag

1573-0743, 1569-5794

Luis Eduardo Echeverría ◽  
Lyda Z. Rojas ◽  
Oscar L. Rueda-Ochoa ◽  
Sergio Alejandro Gómez-Ochoa ◽  
Miguel A. Mayer ◽  

AbstractTo analyze the prognostic value of left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LV-GLS) and other echocardiographic parameters to predict adverse outcomes in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCM). Prospective cohort study conducted in 177 consecutive patients with different CCM stages. Transthoracic echocardiography measurements were obtained following the American Society of Echocardiography recommendations. By speckle-tracking echocardiography, LV-GLS was obtained from the apical three-chamber, apical two-chamber, and apical four-chamber views. The primary composite outcome (CO) was all-cause mortality, cardiac transplantation, and a left ventricular assist device implantation. After a median follow-up of 42.3 months (Q1 = 38.6; Q3 = 52.1), the CO incidence was 22.6% (95% CI 16.7–29.5%, n = 40). The median LV-GLS value was − 13.6% (Q1 =  − 18.6%; Q3 =  − 8.5%). LVEF, LV-GLS, and E/e′ ratio with cut-off points of 40%, − 9, and 8.1, respectively, were the best independent CO predictors. We combined these three echocardiographic markers and evaluated the risk of CO according to the number of altered parameters, finding a significant increase in the risk across the groups. While in the group of patients in which all these three parameters were normal, only 3.2% had the CO; those with all three abnormal parameters had an incidence of 60%. We observed a potential incremental prognostic value of LV-GLS in the multivariate model of LVEF and E/e′ ratio, as the AUC increased slightly from 0.76 to 0.79, nevertheless, this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.066). LV-GLS is an important predictor of adverse cardiovascular events in CCM, providing a potential incremental prognostic value to LVEF and E/e′ ratio when analyzed using optimal cut-off points, highlighting the potential utility of multimodal echocardiographic tools for predicting adverse outcomes in CCM.

Akihiko Okamura ◽  
Hiroyuki Okura ◽  
Saki Iwai ◽  
Atsushi Kyodo ◽  
Daisuke Kamon ◽  

Guglielmo Gallone ◽  
Francesco Bruno ◽  
Teresa Trenkwalder ◽  
Fabrizio D’Ascenzo ◽  
Fabian Islas ◽  

AbstractChange in longitudinal left ventricular (LV) systolic function serves as an early marker of the deleterious effect of aortic stenosis (AS) and other cardiac comorbidities on cardiac function. We explored the prognostic value of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI)-derived longitudinal LV systolic function, defined by the peak systolic average of lateral and septal mitral annular velocities (average S’) among symptomatic patients with severe AS undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). 297 consecutive patients with severe AS undergoing TAVI at three european centers with available average S’ at preprocedural echocardiography were retrospectively included. The primary endpoint was the Kaplan Meier estimate of all-cause mortality. After a median 18 months (IQR 12–18) follow-up, 36 (12.1%) patients had died. Average S’ was associated with all-cause mortality (per 1 cm/sec decrease: HR 1.29, 95%CI 1.03–1.60, p = 0.025), the cut-off of 6.5 cm/sec being the most accurate. Patients with average S’ < 6.5 cm/sec (55.2%) presented characteristics of more advanced LV remodeling and functional impairment along with higher burden of cardiac comorbidities, and experienced higher all-cause mortality (17.6% vs. 7.5%, p = 0.007), also when adjusted for in-study outcome predictors (adj-HR: 2.69, 95%CI 1.22–5.93, p = 0.014). Results were consistent among patients with preserved ejection fraction, normal-flow AS, high-gradient AS and in those without LV hypertrophy. Longitudinal LV systolic function assessed by average S’ is independently associated with long-term all-cause mortality among TAVI patients. An average S’ below 6.5 cm/sec best defines clinically meaningful reduced longitudinal systolic function and may aid clinical risk stratification in these patients.

Jakub Lagan ◽  
Josephine H. Naish ◽  
Joshua Bradley ◽  
Christien Fortune ◽  
Charlie Palmer ◽  

AbstractCystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator is expressed in myocardium, but cardiac involvement in CF remains poorly understood. The recent development of a combined cardiopulmonary magnetic resonance imaging technology allows for a simultaneous interrogation of cardiac and pulmonary structure and function. The aim of this study was to investigate myocardial manifestations in adults with CF, both in a stable state and during an acute respiratory exacerbation, and to investigate the relationship between cardiac and pulmonary disease. Healthy adult volunteers (n = 12) and adults with CF (n = 10) were studied using a multiparametric cardiopulmonary magnetic resonance protocol. CF patients were scanned during an acute respiratory exacerbation and re-scanned when stable. Stable CF was associated with left ventricular dilatation and hypertrophy (LVH; left ventricular mass: CF 59 ± 9 g/m2 vs. control 50 ± 8 g/m2; p = 0.028). LVH was predominantly driven by extracellular myocardial matrix expansion (extracellular matrix mass: CF 27.5 ± 3.4 g vs. control 23.6 ± 5.2 g; p = 0.006; extracellular volume [ECV]: CF 27.6 [24.7–29.8]% vs. control 24.8 [22.9–26.0]%; p = 0.030). Acute CF was associated with an acute reduction in left ventricular function (ejection fraction: acute 57 ± 3% vs. stable 61 ± 5%; p = 0.025) and there was a suggestion of myocardial oedema. Myocardial oedema severity was strongly associated with the severity of airflow limitation (r = − 0.726, p = 0.017). Multiparametric cardiopulmonary magnetic resonance technology allows for a simultaneous interrogation of cardiac and pulmonary structure and function. Stable CF is associated with adverse myocardial remodelling, including left ventricular systolic dilatation and hypertrophy, driven by myocardial fibrosis. CF exacerbation is associated with acute myocardial contractile dysfunction. There is also a suggestion of myocardial oedema in the acute period which is related to pulmonary disease severity.

Susann Skoog ◽  
Lilian Henriksson ◽  
Håkan Gustafsson ◽  
Mårten Sandstedt ◽  
Sebastian Elvelind ◽  

AbstractThe purpose of this study was to compare the correlation and agreement between AS derived from either an energy-integrating detector CT (EID-CT) or a photon-counting detector CT (PCD-CT). Reproducibility was also compared. In total, 26 calcified coronary lesions (from five cadaveric hearts) were identified for inclusion. The hearts were positioned in a chest phantom and scanned in both an EID-CT and a prototype PCD-CT. The EID-CT and PCD-CT acquisition and reconstruction parameters were matched. To evaluate the reproducibility, the phantom was manually repositioned, and an additional scan was performed using both methods. The EID-CT reconstructions were performed using the dedicated calcium score kernel Sa36. The PCD-CT reconstructions were performed with a vendor-recommended kernel (Qr36). Several monoenergetic energy levels (50–150 keV) were evaluated to find the closest match with the EID-CT scans. A semi-automatic evaluation of calcium score was performed on a post-processing multimodality workplace. The best match with Sa36 was PCD-CT Qr36 images, at a monoenergetic level of 72 keV. Statistical analyses showed excellent correlation and agreement. The correlation and agreement with regards to the Agatston score (AS) between the two methods, for each position as well as between the two positions for each method, were assessed with the Spearman´s rank correlation. The correlation coefficient, rho, was 0.98 and 0.97 respectively 0.99 and 0.98. The corresponding agreements were investigated by means of Bland–Altman plots. High correlation and agreement was observed between the AS derived from the EID-CT and a PCD-CT. Both methods also demonstrated excellent reproducibility.

Youssef S. Abdelwahed ◽  
Edna Blum ◽  
Ulf Landmesser ◽  
Gerald S. Werner ◽  
David M. Leistner

Annemarie Kirschfink ◽  
Mhd Nawar Alachkar ◽  
Mohammad Almalla ◽  
Julian Grebe ◽  
Felix Vogt ◽  

AbstractTMVR using different clip sizes is a treatment option for selected patients with mitral regurgitation (MR). This study sought to identify predictors of successful transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVR) by 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography and to compare different effects of the larger XTR and the smaller NT/NTR devices. 3D transesophageal echocardiography was performed on 54 patients with secondary MR undergoing TMVR with one clip (55.6% NT/NTR, 44.4% XTR). All NT/NTR and 96% of XTR patients had MR reduction ≤ 2+. Despite more severe baseline MR (3D vena contracta area (VCA): 0.67 ± 0.34 cm2 vs. 0.43 ± 0.19 cm2, p = 0.004) and greater mitral valve area (MVA) (6.8 ± 2.1 cm2 vs. 5.1 ± 1.6 cm2, p = 0.001) in the XTR group, MR severity after TMVR was not different between XTR and NT/NTR patients (3D VCA: 0.19 ± 0.14 vs. 0.17 ± 0.10, p = 0.51). Baseline 3D VCA > 0.45 cm2 in NT/NTR (AUC = 0.802, 95% CI 0.602 to 1.000) and 3D VCA > 0.54 cm2 in XTR devices (AUC = 0.868, 95% CI 0.719 to 1.000) were associated with ineffective MR reduction defined as residual VCA ≤ 0.2 cm2. Baseline MVA ≤ 4.2 cm2 in NT/NTR (AUC = 0.920, 95% CI 0.809 to 1.000) and MVA ≤ 6.0 cm2 in XTR devices (AUC = 0.865, 95% CI 0.664 to 1.000) were associated with postprocedural transmitral pressure gradient (TMPG) ≥ 5 mmHg. TMVR using the XTR device resulted in an equally effective reduction of MR despite of a greater baseline MR. Distinct cut-off values of baseline 3D VCA and MVA for prediction of successful MR reduction and postprocedural increase of TMPG were identified for the different devices.

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