Structure And Function
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PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e11912
Gita G. Paskerova ◽  
Tatiana S. Miroliubova ◽  
Andrea Valigurová ◽  
Jan Janouškovec ◽  
Magdaléna Kováčiková ◽  

Background Gregarines are a major group of apicomplexan parasites of invertebrates. The gregarine classification is largely incomplete because it relies primarily on light microscopy, while electron microscopy and molecular data in the group are fragmentary and often do not overlap. A key characteristic in gregarine taxonomy is the structure and function of their attachment organelles (AOs). AOs have been commonly classified as “mucrons” or “epimerites” based on their association with other cellular traits such as septation. An alternative proposal focused on the AOs structure, functional role, and developmental fate has recently restricted the terms “mucron” to archigregarines and “epimerite” to eugregarines. Methods Light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy, molecular phylogenetic analyses of ribosomal RNA genes. Results We obtained the first data on fine morphology of aseptate eugregarines Polyrhabdina pygospionis and Polyrhabdina cf. spionis, the type species. We demonstrate that their AOs differ from the mucron in archigregarines and represent an epimerite structurally resembling that in other eugregarines examined using electron microscopy. We then used the concatenated ribosomal operon DNA sequences (SSU, 5.8S, and LSU rDNA) of P. pygospionis to explore the phylogeny of eugregarines with a resolution superior to SSU rDNA alone. The obtained phylogenies show that the Polyrhabdina clade represents an independent, deep-branching family in the Ancoroidea clade within eugregarines. Combined, these results lend strong support to the hypothesis that the epimerite is a synapomorphic innovation of eugregarines. Based on these findings, we resurrect the family Polyrhabdinidae Kamm, 1922 and erect and diagnose the family Trollidiidae fam. n. within the superfamily Ancoroidea Simdyanov et al., 2017. Additionally, we re-describe the characteristics of P. pygospionis, emend the diagnoses of the genus Polyrhabdina, the family Polyrhabdinidae, and the superfamily Ancoroidea.

Katsunori Kohda ◽  
Xuan Li ◽  
Naoki Soga ◽  
Risa Nagura ◽  
Tie Duerna ◽  

The skin microbiota has been recognized to play an integral role in the physiology and pathology of the skin. The crosstalk between skin and the resident microbes has been extensively investigated using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures in vitro; however, skin colonization by multiple species and the effects of interspecific interactions on the structure and function of skin remains to be elucidated. This study reports the establishment of a mixed infection model, incorporating both commensal (Staphylococcus epidermidis) and pathogenic (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria, based on a 3D human epidermal model. We observed that co-infecting the 3D epidermal model with S. aureus and S. epidermidis restricted the growth of S. aureus. In addition, S. aureus induced epidermal cytotoxicity, and the release of proinflammatory cytokines was attenuated by the S. aureus-S. epidermidis mixed infection model. S. epidermidis also inhibited the invasion of the deeper epidermis by S. aureus, eliciting protective effects on the integrity of the epidermal barrier. This 3D culture-based mixed infection model would be an effective replacement for existing animal models and 2D cell culture approaches for the evaluation of diverse biotic and abiotic factors involved in maintaining skin health.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Zhenyu Xiong ◽  
Peihan Xie ◽  
Jiaying Li ◽  
Zhi-chong Chen ◽  
Yifen Lin ◽  

Glycemic variability was found associated with left ventricular structure and function in type 2 diabetes. But it is still unclear that whether the greater visit-to-visit fasting glucose (FG) variability in young adulthood among the community population is associated with cardiac function alteration and cardiac remodeling at midlife. The community-based prospective cohort study of Coronary Artery Risk in Young Adult (CARDIA) recruited young participants at the baseline age of 18–30 years during the period of 1985–1986 (Year 0). FG was measured at Year 0, 2, 10, 15, 20, and 25. The echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac structure and function was conducted at year 25. A total of 2,600 young adults mean (SD) aged at 24.9 years (3.6) of which 57.3% were women and 46.7% were African Americans had been included in the study. After multivariable adjusted, higher SD of mean FG (SDFG) is associated with lower early peak diastolic septal mitral annular velocity (e') (β [SE], −0.214 [0.080], P < 0.01) and higher E/e' (β [SE], 0.307 [0.094], P < 0.01), and higher coefficient of variation of the mean FG (CVFG) is also associated with lower e' (β [SE], −0.141[0.066], P < 0.05) and higher E/e' (β [SE], 0.204 [0.078], P < 0.01). The higher average real variation of mean FG (ARVFG) is associated with higher E/e' (β [SE], 0.178 [0.085], P < 0.05) and higher left ventricular mass index (LVMI) (β [SE], 1.240 [0.618], P < 0.05). The higher FG variability in young adulthood is associated with the subclinical change of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function at midlife.

2021 ◽  
Rebeca Brocal-Ruiz ◽  
Ainara Esteve-Serrano ◽  
Carlos Mora-Martínez ◽  
Juan Tena ◽  
Nuria Flames

Cilia, either motile or non-motile (a.k.a primary or sensory), are complex evolutionary conserved eukaryotic structures composed of hundreds of proteins required for their assembly, structure and function that are collectively known as the ciliome. Ciliome mutations underlie a group of pleiotropic genetic diseases known as ciliopathies. Proper cilium function requires the tight coregulation of ciliome gene transcription, which is only fragmentarily understood. RFX transcription factors (TF) have an evolutionarily conserved role in the direct activation of ciliome genes both in motile and non-motile cilia cell types. In vertebrates, FoxJ1 and FoxN4 Forkhead (FKH) TFs work with RFX in the direct activation of ciliome genes, exclusively in motile cilia cell-types. No additional TFs have been described to act together with RFX in primary cilia cell-types in any organism. Here we describe FKH-8, a FKH TF, as master regulator of the primary ciliome in Caenorhabditis elegans. fkh-8 is expressed in all ciliated neurons in C. elegans, binds the regulatory regions of ciliome genes, regulates ciliome gene expression, cilium morphology and a wide range of behaviours mediated by sensory cilia. Importantly, we find FKH-8 function can be replaced by mouse FOXJ1 and FOXN4 but not by members of other mouse FKH subfamilies. In conclusion, our results show that RFX and FKH TF families act as master regulators of ciliogenesis also in sensory ciliated cell types and suggest that this regulatory logic could be an ancient trait predating functional cilia sub-specialization.

2021 ◽  
Margaret L Westwater ◽  
Alexander G Murley ◽  
Kelly MJ Diederen ◽  
T Adrian Carpenter ◽  
Hisham Ziauddeen ◽  

Background: Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are associated with altered brain structure and function, as well as increased habitual behavior. This neurobehavioral profile may implicate neurochemical changes in the pathogenesis of these illnesses. Altered glutamate, myo-inositol and N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) concentrations are reported in restrictive AN, yet whether these extend to binge-eating disorders, or relate to habitual traits in affected individuals, remains unknown. Methods: Using single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we measured glutamate, myo-inositol and NAA in 85 women [n=22 AN (binge-eating/purging subtype; AN-BP), n=33 BN, n=30 controls]. Spectra were acquired from the right inferior lateral prefrontal cortex and the right occipital cortex. To index habitual behavior, participants performed an instrumental learning task and completed the Creature of Habit Scale. Exploratory analyses examined associations between metabolites and habitual behavior. Results: Women with AN-BP, but not BN, had reduced myo-inositol and NAA concentrations relative to controls in both voxels. Patient groups had intact performance on the instrumental learning task; however, both groups reported increased routine behaviors compared to controls. Women with BN also reported greater automatic behaviors, and automaticity was related to reduced prefrontal glutamate and NAA in the AN-BP group. Discussion: Findings extend previous reports of reduced myo-inositol and NAA levels in AN to AN-BP, which may reflect disrupted axonal-glial signaling. Although we found inconsistent support for increased habitual behavior in AN-BP and BN, we identified preliminary associations between prefrontal metabolites and automaticity in AN-BP. These results provide further evidence of unique neurobiological profiles across binge-eating disorders.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 105-128
Joo Yeun Lee ◽  
Rachel A. Care ◽  
Luca Della Santina ◽  
Felice A. Dunn

Our sense of sight relies on photoreceptors, which transduce photons into the nervous system's electrochemical interpretation of the visual world. These precious photoreceptors can be disrupted by disease, injury, and aging. Once photoreceptors start to die, but before blindness occurs, the remaining retinal circuitry can withstand, mask, or exacerbate the photoreceptor deficit and potentially be receptive to newfound therapies for vision restoration. To maximize the retina's receptivity to therapy, one must understand the conditions that influence the state of the remaining retina. In this review, we provide an overview of the retina's structure and function in health and disease. We analyze a collection of observations on photoreceptor disruption and generate a predictive model to identify parameters that influence the retina's response. Finally, we speculate on whether the retina, with its remarkable capacity to function over light levels spanning nine orders of magnitude, uses these same adaptational mechanisms to withstand and perhaps mask photoreceptor loss.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Sara Bitam ◽  
Ahmad Elbahnsi ◽  
Geordie Creste ◽  
Iwona Pranke ◽  
Benoit Chevalier ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (18) ◽  
pp. 9972
Emilia Przygrodzka ◽  
Michele R. Plewes ◽  
John S. Davis

The corpus luteum is an endocrine gland that synthesizes the steroid hormone progesterone. luteinizing hormone (LH) is a key luteotropic hormone that stimulates ovulation, luteal development, progesterone biosynthesis, and maintenance of the corpus luteum. Luteotropic and luteolytic factors precisely regulate luteal structure and function; yet, despite recent scientific progress within the past few years, the exact mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the present review, we summarize the recent progress towards understanding cellular changes induced by LH in steroidogenic luteal cells. Herein, we will focus on the effects of LH on inter-organelle communication and steroid biosynthesis, and how LH regulates key protein kinases (i.e., AMPK and MTOR) responsible for controlling steroidogenesis and autophagy in luteal cells.

2021 ◽  
Isabel Cristina Vélez-Bermúdez ◽  
Wolfgang Schmidt

Abstract BackgroundCovalent modifications of core histonesgoverndownstream DNA-templated processes such as transcription by altering chromatin structure and function. Previously, we reported that the plant homeodomain protein ALFIN-LIKE6 (AL6), a bona fide histone reader that preferentially binds trimethylated lysin 4 on histone 3 (H3K4me3), is critical for recalibration of cellular phosphate (Pi) homeostasis and root hair elongation under Pi-deficient conditions. ResultsHere, we demonstrate that AL6 is also involved in the response of Arabidopsis seedlings to jasmonic acid (JA) during skotomorphogenesis, possibly by modulating chromatin dynamics that affect the transcriptional regulation of JA-responsivegenes. Dark-grown al6 seedlings showed a compromised reduction in hypocotyl elongation upon exogenously supplied JA, a response that was calibrated by the availability of Pi in the growth medium. A comparison of protein profiles between wild-type and al6 mutant seedlings using a quantitative Chromatin Enrichment for Proteomics (ChEP) approach,that we modified for plant tissue and designated ChEP-P (ChEP in Plants), yielded a comprehensive suite of chromatin-associated proteins and candidates that may be causative for the mutant phenotype. ConclusionsAltered abundance of proteins involved in chromatin organization in al6 seedlings suggests a role of AL6 in coordinating the deposition of histone variants upon perception of internal or environmental stimuli. Our study shows that ChEP-P is well suited to gain holistic insights into chromatin-related processes in plants. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD026541.

Lucia Guzun ◽  
Pascal Fortier-Poisson ◽  
Jean-Sébastien Langlais ◽  
Allan M. Smith

AbstractSingle cutaneous fibers were recorded in the median nerve of the deeply anesthetized rat and the receptor morphology in the forelimb glabrous skin was analyzed to establish a probable correlation between receptor anatomy and physiology. Receptor complexes in the glabrous skin of the rat forelimb were stained immunologically with antibodies NF-200 and PGP-9.5, confirming the presence of Meissner corpuscles and Merkel complexes within the dermal papilla similar to other mammals including primates. Both the Meissner corpuscles and Merkel cell complexes were sparse and located in the pyramidal-shaped palmer pads and the apex of the digit extremities. They were almost totally absent elsewhere in the glabrous skin. No Ruffini receptors or Pacinian corpuscles were found in our samples. A total of 92 cutaneous fibers were retained long enough for analysis. Thirty-five (38%) were characterized as rapidly adapting fibers (RA) and 57 (62%) were slowly adapting afferents (SA). Despite the very limited number of receptors at the tip of the digit, RA receptors outnumbered SA fibers 3.2/1.0. In contrast, SA fibers on the thenar pad outnumbered RA receptors by a ratio of 3–1. Despite the very limited number of low threshold mechanoreceptors in the glabrous skin of the rat forelimb, the prevalence of SA afferents in the palm and more frequent occurrence of RA afferents in the digit extremity suggest differences in functionality both for locomotion and object manipulation.

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