Abstract: Information on distribution, number of populations, and biotic interactions are essential for assessing the threat status of species and to establish more effective conservation initiatives. Ecological niche modeling have been successfully applied to identify the potential distribution, even for rare species that have few recorded occurrence points. In this study, we evaluated the potential distribution and additionally generated the first data on the reproductive biology of Discocactus ferricola, due to its degree of threat and the absence of ecological data for that species. The potential distribution map highlighted areas with higher probability of occurrence of D. ferricola on the Residual Plateau of Maciço do Urucum located in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The occurrence of D. ferricola populations was limited to outcrops of flat ironstone (cangas) distributed in patches across the landscape, increasing the chances of serious threats, such as habitat loss due to mining and species extraction. We also found that D. ferricola is xenogamous. Therefore, in situ conservation actions must prioritize the maintenance of interactions with pollinators by preserving the flora and fauna of rocky outcrops and adjacent forests in areas of greater environmental suitability for D. ferricola. Our study highlights the use of ecological niche modeling and data on biotic interactions to evaluate species potential distribution, to guide new sampling efforts, and to assist conservation and management initiatives.
Abstract: The Parque Estadual Ilha do Cardoso (PEIC), located on extreme South of São Paulo’s cost, in Brazil, holds an important Atlantic Forest remnant which still in a good state of conservation, but lack a deepen study about the avian community that habits the island. This study aimed to elaborate a census of avian species that occur in the park approaching richness, occurrence frequency, occurrence status and the structure of trophic guilds. A total of 25 field expedictions occurred between September 2015 and September 2017 during five days each, the field work included different ecosystems as mangrove, restinga, forest, sandbank, beach and marine. The census was made combine three different techniques used in ornithological studies: visual identification, auditory identification and catch by mist-nets (with five fixed sites in mangrove, restinga and forest). Were recorded 335 avian species, with 28 of them endemic from Brazil and 33 being threatened with extinction. Seventy-three species were recorded in all sampled months (FO 100%), while 46 were recorded in just one month (FO = 4%). About occurrence status, 55% of species are residents, 20% occasional visitors, 13% unusual residents, 6% migratory and 6% visitors. According the recorded species were recognized 25 trophic guilds based on food items, corporal size and strata that commonly forage, which of most representative in the community, the guild of “of insectivorous of medium-strata” (N = 55), “canopy omnivorous” (N = 33), “aquatic invertebrates consummers” and “piscivorous” (N = 31). Finally, with the current study, we aimed through a significative field effort bring a better knowledge about avifauna of PEIC, which could be a good base when is necessary take actions that aim to park management and the Conservation Unities around it.
Abstract: This work assesses current knowledge of zooplankton biodiversity in aquatic ecosystems of the state of Acre (Brazil). A bibliographic survey was undertaken, showing that most of the reported studies have focused on zooplankton diversity and composition. Fifteen locations have been studied. There is still a scarcity of information concerning zooplankton populations in the Amazon region. To date, 170 species of planktonic rotifers have been recorded, distributed in 26 families and 38 genera, together with 18 species of cladocerans, distributed in 8 families and 18 genera, and 4 species of copepods in 2 families and 6 genera. The results indicate the need for further research concerning the biodiversity of this group of organisms at locations in the basins of the Purus and Juruá Rivers, especially in lotic ecosystems and littoral zones, given the present lack of information and the socioeconomic importance they play in the region.
Abstract: Scientific research that purports to evaluate Indigenous fire regimes in the absence of ethnographically contextualized ecological data runs the risk of exacerbating the fire blame game and providing evidence to support distorted narratives advanced by anti-Indigenous advocates. Spatial analysis of fire scars in Indigenous territories can be an effective tool for characterizing cultural fire regimes in terms of distribution and frequency, especially when qualified by linkages to different local ecosystems. A recently published article drew on fire scar mapping from satellite imagery to assess anthropogenic fire distribution and frequency in the Pimentel Barbosa Indigenous Land, Central Brazil. The authors use their findings to characterize A'uwẽ (Xavante) use of fire as unmanaged and a model of unsustainable use of cerrado resources. In this article, we discuss Aguiar & Martins's recent paper in light of our long-term research on A'uwẽ hunting with fire in the Pimentel Barbosa Indigenous Land, arguing that A'uwẽ hunters do burn according to established cultural protocols, manage their use of fire for conservationist purposes, and do not cause environmental degradation by burning.
Abstract: The main goal of this work was to investigate how the abundance and richness of Arctiinae moths varies over time, during the night. Specifically, we analyzed the following questions: (1) Is there a relationship between Arctiinae abundance and richness with the temperature and relative humidity? (2) What are the hours of activity of each species of moth? (3) Does the species composition differ over night? (4) Is it necessary to sample this group of moths throughout the night to have a representative sample of the species? We sampled the moths in Emas National Park (17°49’-18°28’S and 52°39’-53°10’W), Brazil. We selected seven sampling points in an area of savanna. At each sampling point, we collected the Arctiinae moths with a light trap (with a 15-W black light fluorescent light bulb), reflected in a white cloth (2 x 3 m) extended vertically. We sampled the moths in seven consecutive nights (one night in each sampling point, from December 13 to December 19, 2012, from 7 p.m. until 7 a.m.). We divided the samplings in twelve periods over the night, with an hour each. At each period of time, we measured the temperature and the relative humidity with a digital termohygrometer. We sampled 149 individuals belonging to 17 species of Arctiinae moths. Most species (70.5%) were active only for one or two hours at night. The species differed in terms of time activity. The higher abundance occurred at 8 p. m. (44 individuals), followed by 38 individuals at 9 p. m. and 23 at 10 p. m. The species richness was also higher in the early hours of the night. The temperature was the only variable that showed a positive and significative relationship with the Arctiinae moth abundance. The species richness was not influenced neither by the temperature nor by the relative air humidity. The possible causes of the peak of abundance and species richness in specific hours of the night are discussed.
Abstract In this study, multi-tissue (yolk and carapace) stable isotope analysis was used to assess individual isotopic niche trajectories of nesting green turtles on Rocas Atoll, off northeastern Brazil, and to reveal a diet shift in the temporal dimension. The diet trajectories of individual green turtles were highly directional, with a stronger component towards decreasing values of δ15N from carapace to yolk. When the green turtles are in their foraging sites (temporal window measured by the yolk samples), they are more herbivores. Conversely, in a broader temporal window, the green turtles demonstrate a carnivore-omnivore strategy, such as represented by heavier δ15N values in the carapace. This finding confirms a temporal diet shift. This is the first study that applies trophic niche trajectories for sea turtles, adding a new isotopic tool to understand the trophic ecology of these migrant animals.
Abstract: Anthropogenic environmental changes are the main cause of species extinction during the Holocene. Species have been exposed to major source of threats, such as habitat loss and fragmentation, pollution, introduced species, and harvesting, many of which are derived from specific anthropogenic activities, such as urbanization, agriculture, and damming (i.e. fine-scale threats). However, the importance of these threats on the species conservation status in a given region depends on the type of impacts they are exposed to and the susceptibility of species to these impacts. In this study, we used a database of threatened Brazilian freshwater fish species to test whether the major source of threats and the specific anthropogenic impacts to species vary across hydrographic regions and taxonomic groups. Our results showed that habitat loss is a ubiquitous major threat jeopardizing the conservation status of the Brazilian fish species. However, different fine-scale threats mediate this process across hydrographic regions and taxonomic groups. The combination of impacts from agriculture, deforestation, and urbanization affects most of the threatened species in the basins of the Northeast, South, and Southeast, including the species of the most threatened order, the Cyprinodontiformes. Damming is the main human activity affecting threatened species of Siluriformes, Characiformes, Gymnotiformes, and Cichliformes, especially in northern basins (Amazon and Tocantins-Araguaia). Therefore, we found that specific fine-scale threats influencing threatened species vary across hydrographic regions and taxonomic groups, probably due to geographic variability in the incidence of human activities and differential niche requirements and vulnerability of species to these activities.
Abstract: This study monitored marine turtle nests in a region known as the Potiguar Basin, which stretches from the northern region of Rio Grande do Norte State (5°4’1.15” S, 36°4’36.41” W) to eastern Ceará State (4°38’48.28” S, 37°32’52.08” W) in Brazil. We collected data from January 2011 to December 2019 to identify species of sea turtles that spawn in the basin, to analyze the nesting spatial-temporal pattern and nests characteristics, and to record effects of environmental and anthropic factors on nests. A field team examined sea turtle tracks and nests signs. Turtle clutches were monitored daily until hatchings emerged from the nests. We monitored nests of hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata; n = 238) and olive Ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea; n = 103). The nesting season for E. imbricata occurred between December and May and for L. olivacea from March to August. Hawksbills had clutch size, incubation time, number of unhatched eggs, and dead hatchlings higher than olive Ridley turtles; nevertheless, they presented lower hatching success. Precipitation between 0 and 22 mm and relative humidity (RH) higher than 69% increased the hatching success rate for E. imbricata; however, rainfall above 11 mm and RH 64% had the same effect for L. olivacea. Signs of egg theft and human presence (e.g. vehicle traffic and plastic residues on the beach) were recorded and are considered threats to nests. The results of our long-term monitoring study in the Potiguar Basin provide basis for the implementation of mitigation measures and adoption of management policies at nesting beaches in this Brazilian region.
Abstract: Tadpoles are able to perceive and discriminate signals from environment and they may use this ability in behaviors and ecological processes. Recognition mechanisms may be involved in schooling by means of attraction among individuals, characterizing a social process. By means of laboratory experiments the present study investigated the presence or absence of attraction to conspecifics in tadpoles of Rhinella icterica and R. ornata, two sympatric species from the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil. We collected eggs of these two species in the field and reared them in laboratory according to two different methods (isolated or in groups of siblings). Tadpoles were submitted to experiments of choice between conspecifics, heterospecifics, and an empty compartment. Rhinella icterica tadpoles preferred to associate with conspecifics rather than R. ornata tadpoles, and we verified this is an innate behavior. Rhinella ornata tadpoles failed to discriminate between conspecifics and R. icterica tadpoles. When submitted to choice between a group of tadpoles of the other species and an empty compartment, R. icterica tadpoles presented random distribution, while R. ornata tadpoles preferred to associate with heterospecifics. Our results indicate R. icterica tadpoles have preference to associate with conspecifics, while R. ornata tadpoles may school indiscriminately. This study contributes for a better understanding of larval anuran social behavior.
Abstract: Many tropical anurans use forest streams to deposit their eggs, but resource use and selection by tadpoles in tropical forests are poorly known. In the present research, we hypothesized that leaf litter and water depth affect tadpole assemblages due to adult habitat selection for oviposition and/or microhabitat selection by tadpoles. Fieldwork was carried out in the Estação Biológica de Boracéia, an Atlantic Rainforest reserve in São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil. We sampled tadpoles during a year using 40 double-entry funnel-traps distributed along four streams in the forest. Only leaf litter effects are species dependent. We discussed that habitat structure significance depends on the morphological and ecological adaptation to forage and avoid competition within the tadpole community.