land use types
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2022 ◽  
Vol 210 ◽  
pp. 105888
Xian Tang ◽  
Jiashuai Hu ◽  
Ying Lu ◽  
Jingchi Qiu ◽  
Yuqing Dong ◽  
Land Use ◽  
Red Soil ◽  
Soil C ◽  

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262445
Chao Zhang ◽  
Min Tang ◽  
Xiaodong Gao ◽  
Qiang Ling ◽  
Pute Wu

Various land use types have been implemented by the government in the loess hilly region of China to facilitate sustainable land use. Understanding the variability in soil moisture and temperature under various sloping land use types can aid the ecological restoration and sustainable utilization of sloping land resources. The objective of this study was to use approximate entropy (ApEn) to reveal the variations in soil moisture and temperature under different land use types, because ApEn only requires a short data series to obtain robust estimates, with a strong anti-interference ability. An experiment was conducted with four typical land use scenarios (i.e., soybean sloping field, maize terraced field, jujube orchard, and grassland) over two consecutive plant growing seasons (2014 and 2015), and the time series of soil moisture and temperature within different soil depth layers of each land use type were measured in both seasons. The results showed that the changing amplitude, degree of variation, and active layer of soil moisture in the 0–160 cm soil depth layer, as well as the changing amplitude and degree of variation of soil temperature in the 0–100 cm soil layer increased in the jujube orchard over the two growing seasons. The changing amplitude, degree of variation, and active layer of soil moisture all decreased in the maize terraced field, as did the changing amplitude and degree of variation of soil temperature. The ApEn of the soil moisture series was the lowest in the 0–160 cm soil layer in the maize terraced field, and the ApEn of the soil temperature series was the highest in the 0–100 cm layer in the jujube orchard in the two growing seasons. Finally, the jujube orchard soil moisture and temperature change process were more variable, whereas the changes in the maize terraced field were more stable, with a stable soil moisture and temperature. This work highlights the usefulness of ApEn for revealing soil moisture and temperature changes and to guide the management and development of sloping fields.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 211
Lei Hou ◽  
Zhongyuan Zhou ◽  
Ruyan Wang ◽  
Jianxin Li ◽  
Fei Dong ◽  

In recent years, freshwater resource contamination by non-point source pollution has become particularly prominent in China. To control non-point source (NPS) pollution, it is important to estimate NPS pollution exports, identify sources of pollution, and analyze the pollution characteristics. As such, in this study, we established the modified export coefficient model based on rainfall and terrain to investigate the pollution sources and characteristics of non-point source total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) throughout the Huangqian Reservoir watershed—which serves as an important potable water source for the main tributary of the lower Yellow River. The results showed that: (1) In 2018, the non-point source total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads in the Huangqian Reservoir basin were 707.09 t and 114.42 t, respectively. The contribution ratios to TN export were, from high to low, rural life (33.58%), farmland (32.68%), other land use types (20.08%), and livestock and poultry breeding (13.67%). The contribution ratios to TP export were, from high to low, rural life (61.19%), livestock and poultry breeding (21.65%), farmland (12.79%), and other land use types (4.38%). The non-point source pollution primarily originated from the rural life of the water source protection zone. (2) Non-point source TN and TP pollution loads and load intensities showed significantly different spatial distribution patterns throughout the water source protection area. Specifically, their load intensities and loads were the largest in the second-class protected zone, which is the key source area of non-point source pollution. (3) When considering whether to invest in agricultural land fertilizer control or rural domestic sewage, waste, and livestock manure pollution control, the latter is demonstrably more effective. Thus, in addition to putting low-grade control on agricultural fertilizer loss, to rapidly and effectively improve potable water quality, non-point source pollution should, to a larger extent, also be controlled through measures such as establishing household biogas digesters, introducing village sewage treatment plants, and improving the recovery rate of rural domestic garbage. The research results discussed herein provide a theoretical basis for formulating a reasonable and effective protection plan for the Huangqian Reservoir water source and can potentially be used to do the same for other similar freshwater resources.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 296
Shiyao Zhang ◽  
Huaiyong Shao ◽  
Xiaoqin Li ◽  
Wei Xian ◽  
Qiufang Shao ◽  

Urbanization has not only promoted economic development, but also significantly changed land use and development strategy. The environmental problems brought by urbanization threaten ecological security directly. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce changes in land use when constructing an ecological security pattern. This study takes the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration, one of the most economically developed regions in China, as the research area. Based on its land use status, the Cellular Automata–Markov model was used to predict the quantitative change and transfer of land-use types in 2025, and three types of land-use patterns were simulated under different scenarios. Combined with the pressure–state–response model, the Entropy TOPSIS comprehensive evaluation model is used to evaluate the three phases in the years of 2005, 2010, and 2015, and the results indicated that the safety level dropped from 85.45% to 82.94%. Five spatial associations were obtained from the spatial autocorrelation analysis using GeoDA, and the clustering distribution of the three phases was roughly the same. Based on the requirements of “Natural Growth” scenario, “Urban Sprawl” scenario, and “Ecological Protection” scenario, the transfer matrix of the various land-use types were modified rationally. The results of scenario simulations illustrated that the level of urbanization was inversely proportional to the level of ecological security. The surrounding cities in the northern part of Taihu Lake were developing rapidly, with low levels of ecological security. The hilly cities in the southern part, in contrast, developed slowly and had a high level of ecological security. Based on the temporal and spatial changes in the ecosystem, an ecosystem optimization model was proposed to determine the ecological functional areas. The nature of each functional area provided the basis to formulate urban construction and management plans and achieve sustainable urban development.

Eisa Ebrahimi ◽  
Hossein Asadi ◽  
Mohammad Rahmani ◽  
Mohammad Bagher Farhangi ◽  
Afshin Ashrafzadeh

Abstract Natural and anthropogenic factors influence the entry of pollutants into surface waters and their accumulation in aquatic ecosystems. This study aimed to investigate precipitation and sediment concentration on the outflow of different forms of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in three primary land-use types along the Pasikhan River, the biggest river entering the Anzali Wetland in the Southern Caspian sea. Water sampling was performed on a monthly basis during the time bracket of 2017–2018. Different forms of P including total, soluble, particulate, total reactive, and dissolved reactive, and total Kjeldahl N, soluble N, particulate N, and were determined in the water samples. Total phosphorus and total Kjeldahl nitrogen contents lay within the range of 2.2–4.7 and from 0.14 to 0.33 mg l−1, respectively, downstream of the river. The highest monthly outflow of P from the watershed at the Agriculture station was recorded in October. Substantial conformity was found between the monthly trends of and and the trend of precipitation. The results indicated that sediment load intensified after an increase in the rainfall rate, leading to elevated N and P concentrations in the river water, mainly as particulate phosphorus and soluble nitrogen. It can also be inferred from the result that the concentration of N and P is directly related to the sediment concentration increase due to the rainfall. Increasing levels of nutrients such as N and P in the Pasikhan River can cause eutrophication in the Anzali Wetland, which needs conservative measures for reducing these elements' dynamic in the watershed.

Frederick Gyasi Damptey ◽  
Bernard Fosu Frimpong ◽  
Daniel Kwame Debrah ◽  
Prince Pascal Agro ◽  
Edward Debrah Wiafe

AbstractUrban green spaces (UGS) enhance the quality of life in urban environments and serve as habitat corridors or refuge for organisms, including beetles and spiders. The attributes of UGS allow them to harbour species that offer essential ecosystem services. However, the ability of UGS to provide services is limited by the extent to which they have been altered anthropogenically. We described the taxonomic richness and functional composition of arthropods in a mountainous urban ecosystem of Ghana by focussing on the activity of both beetles and spiders at the family level. Two main land-use types (woodlands and built-up areas) were identified and characterised based on the presence or absence of certain vegetation attributes. Sixteen plots in each land-use type with sizes 20 × 20 m were demarcated and fitted with four pitfall traps in each plot to sample continuously for eight weeks, the activity density of both beetles and spiders. Samples were sorted into families and functional groups (detritivores, fungivores, herbivory and predators). The taxonomic richness and activity density were both significantly higher in the woodlands than in the built-up areas. Similarly, all functional groups showed a higher affinity to the woodlands than the built-up areas. Habitat attributes defined by plant diversity and structural complexity were the underlying drivers explaining the differences in arthropod communities between the land-use types. Though the built-up areas seem degraded and open, the remaining small vegetation patches still support the activities of some taxa that should merit the protection of such remnant vegetation in urban ecosystems.

Zihao Wang ◽  
Xiaoqiang Chen ◽  
Na Huang ◽  
Yinan Yang ◽  
Li Wang ◽  

Rapid industrialization and urbanization in China have led to a rapid increase in the number of brownfields, however there is a lack of identification of the spatial extent of brownfields in cities and accurate assessment of brownfield redevelopment. Based on the relationship between brownfields and urban complex ecosystems, this paper defines brownfields in China and constructs a comprehensive evaluation index system including socio-economic and ecological subsystems. Using Wuhu City as empirical evidence, 19 brownfields were identified using remote sensing data and field surveys. Based on the detection of soil contaminants in brownfields, a fuzzy integrated evaluation method was used to suggest their redevelopment direction. It is found that the government’s planned land use types and the brownfield redevelopment evaluation results match to a large extent, but social, economic and ecological environmental factors should be more fully considered. At the same time, the identification and redevelopment of brownfield sites in the city as a whole need to be carried out by the government’s professional forces in order to obtain more effective and scientific conclusions.

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