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Adrian Hase ◽  
Max Erdmann ◽  
Verena Limbach ◽  
Gregor Hasler

Abstract Rationale and objectives Differences among psychedelic substances regarding their subjective experiences are clinically and scientifically interesting. Quantitative linguistic analysis is a powerful tool to examine such differences. This study compared five psychedelic substance report groups and a non-psychedelic report group on quantitative linguistic markers of psychological states and processes derived from recreational use-based online experience reports. Methods Using 2947 publicly available online reports, we compared Ayahuasca and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT, analyzed together), ketamine, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), psilocybin (mushroom), and antidepressant drug use experiences. We examined word frequencies related to various psychological states and processes and semantic proximity to psychedelic and mystical experience scales. Results Linguistic markers of psychological function indicated distinct effect profiles. For example, MDMA experience reports featured an emotionally intensifying profile accompanied by many cognitive process words and dynamic-personal language. In contrast, Ayahuasca and DMT experience reports involved relatively little emotional language, few cognitive process words, increased analytical thinking-associated language, and the most semantic similarity with psychedelic and mystical experience descriptions. LSD, psilocybin mushroom, and ketamine reports showed only small differences on the emotion-, analytical thinking-, psychedelic, and mystical experience-related language outcomes. Antidepressant reports featured more negative emotional and cognitive process-related words, fewer positive emotional and analytical thinking-related words, and were generally not similar to mystical and psychedelic language. Conclusion This article addresses an existing research gap regarding the comparison of different psychedelic drugs on linguistic profiles of psychological states, processes, and experiences. The large sample of experience reports involving multiple psychedelic drugs provides valuable information that would otherwise be difficult to obtain. The results could inform experimental research into psychedelic drug effects in healthy populations and clinical trials for psychedelic treatments of psychiatric problems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 908
Zuzana Romanova ◽  
Natasa Hlavacova ◽  
Daniela Jezova

There is no doubt that chronic stress accompanied by adrenocortical stress hormone release affects the development and treatment outcome of several mental disorders. Less attention has been paid to the effects of psychotropic drugs on adrenocortical steroids, particularly in clinical studies. This review focuses on the knowledge related to the possible modulation of cortisol and aldosterone secretion under non-stress and stress conditions by antipsychotic drugs, which are being used in the treatment of several psychotic and affective disorders. The molecular mechanisms by which antipsychotic drugs may influence steroid stress hormones include the modulation of central and/or adrenocortical dopamine and serotonin receptors, modulation of inflammatory cytokines, influence on regulatory mechanisms in the central part of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, inhibition of corticotropin-releasing hormone gene promoters, influencing glucocorticoid receptor-mediated gene transcription, indirect effects via prolactin release, alteration of signaling pathways of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid actions. Clinical studies performed in healthy subjects, patients with psychosis, and patients with bipolar disorder suggest that single and repeated antipsychotic treatments either reduce cortisol concentrations or do not affect its secretion. A single and potentially long-term treatment with dopamine receptor antagonists, including antipsychotics, has a stimulatory action on aldosterone release.

2022 ◽  
Kathleen A Trychta ◽  
Brandon K Harvey

Drugs of abuse can cause local and systemic hyperthermia, a known trigger of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR). Another trigger of ER stress and UPR is ER calcium depletion which causes ER exodosis, the secretion of ER resident proteins. Club drugs such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) can create hyperthermic conditions in the brain and cause toxicity that is affected by the environmental temperature and the presence of other drugs, such as caffeine. Here we examine the secretion of ER resident proteins and activation of the UPR under combined exposure to MDMA and caffeine in a cellular model of hyperthermia. We show that hyperthermia triggers the secretion of normally ER resident proteins and that this aberrant protein secretion is potentiated by the presence of MDMA, caffeine, or a combination of the two drugs. Hyperthermia activates the UPR but the addition of MDMA or caffeine does not alter canonical UPR gene expression despite the drug effects on ER exodosis of UPR-related proteins. One exception was increased BiP/Grp78 mRNA levels in MDMA-treated cells exposed to hyperthermia. These findings suggest that club drug use under hyperthermic conditions exacerbates disruption of ER proteostasis contributing to cellular toxicity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Marie-Michèle Briand ◽  
Nicolas Lejeune ◽  
Nathan Zasler ◽  
Rita Formisano ◽  
Olivier Bodart ◽  

Epileptic seizures/post-traumatic epilepsy (ES/PTE) are frequent in persons with brain injuries, particularly for patients with more severe injuries including ones that result in disorders of consciousness (DoC). Surprisingly, there are currently no best practice guidelines for assessment or management of ES in persons with DoC. This study aimed to identify clinician attitudes toward epilepsy prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment in patients with DoC as well as current practice in regards to the use of amantadine in these individuals. A cross-sectional online survey was sent to members of the International Brain Injury Association (IBIA). Fifty physician responses were included in the final analysis. Withdrawal of antiepileptic drug/anti-seizure medications (AED/ASM) therapy was guided by the absence of evidence of clinical seizure whether or not the AED/ASM was given prophylactically or for actual seizure/epilepsy treatment. Standard EEG was the most frequent diagnostic method utilized. The majority of respondents ordered an EEG if there were concerns regarding lack of neurological progress. AED/ASM prescription was reported to be triggered by the first clinically evident seizure with levetiracetam being the AED/ASM of choice. Amantadine was frequently prescribed although less so in patients with epilepsy and/or EEG based epileptic abnormalities. A minority of respondents reported an association between amantadine and seizure. Longitudinal studies on epilepsy management, epilepsy impact on neurologic prognosis, as well as potential drug effects on seizure risk in persons with DoC appear warranted with the goal of pushing guideline development forward and improving clinical assessment and management of seizures in this unique, albeit challenging, population.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Nobuyuki Wakui ◽  
Mizue Ozawa ◽  
Takahiro Yanagiya ◽  
Saki Endo ◽  
Chikako Togawa ◽  

The average age of patients with type 2 diabetes in Japan is over 70 years. Elderly patients tend to have poor medication compliance, therefore, it is important to understand their individual situations to improve medication compliance, the treatment of their diabetes, and their quality of life (QOL). This study aimed to identify factors associated with medication compliance in elderly type 2 diabetic patients. A cross-sectional study based on questionnaires was conducted on type 2 diabetes patients aged 65 years or older. The participants were recruited from patients who visited three dispensing pharmacies in the Shinagawa area of Tokyo between March 1 and September 30, 2019. The questionnaire consisted of patient information (sex, age, medication compliance status, knowledge of drug effects, and side effects), 12-Item Short Form Survey quality of life rating scale (SF-12), and Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ). Factors related to medication compliance were then evaluated. In all, there were 47 respondents: 31 males and 16 females. Four factors were found to be associated with medication compliance in elderly type 2 diabetic patients: medication storage (P = 0.01), knowledge of drug effects (P < 0.001), knowledge of side effects (P = 0.026), and physical functioning: (PF) (P = 0.045), a subscale of SF-12. Furthermore, the strength of the association between these four factors and medication compliance was calculated using Cramer's V coefficient of association. Knowledge of drug effects was the most strongly associated (knowledge of drug effects: V = 0.559; knowledge of side effects: V = 0.464; medication storage: V = 0.451; PF: V = 0.334). Because diabetes mellitus has no subjective symptoms and treatment effects are not felt to a great extent, it is difficult to motivate patients to consistently adhere to medication. When pharmacists provide medication guidance to elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, it is important to provide sufficient information to ensure they fully understand the drug effects to maintain medication compliance.

Ji Young You ◽  
Kyong Hwa Park ◽  
Eunsook Lee ◽  
Youngmee Kwon ◽  
Kyungtae Kim ◽  

Background: We aimed to identify overexpressed genes or related pathways associated with good responses to anti-HER2 therapy and to suggest a model for predicting drug response in neoadjuvant therapy with trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer patients. Methods: We recruited 64 women with breast cancer and categorized them into three groups according to anti-HER2 therapy response. RNA from twenty core needle biopsy paraffin-embedded tissues and four cultured cell was extracted, reverse transcribed, and subjected to microarray. The obtained data were analyzed using Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and database for annotation, visualization, and integrated discovery. Results: In total, 6,656 genes differentially expressed between trastuzumab-susceptible and trastuzumab-resistant cell lines (3,224 upregulated and 3,432 downregulated). Expression changes in 34 genes in several pathways were found to be related to the response to trastuzumab-containing treatment, interfering with adhesion to other cells or tissues (focal adhesion) and regulating extracellular matrix interactions and phagosome action. Thus, decreased tumor invasiveness and enhanced drug effects might be the mechanisms explaining the better drug response in complete response group. Conclusions: This multigene assay-based study provides insights into breast cancer signal transduction and the possible prediction of treatment response to targeted therapies such as trastuzumab.

2021 ◽  
Piero Barbanti ◽  
Gabriella Egeo ◽  
Cinzia Aurilia ◽  
Florindo d'Onofrio ◽  
Maria Albanese ◽  

Abstract Background Fremanezumab has demonstrated to be effective, safe, and tolerated in the prevention of episodic or chronic migraine (CM) in randomized, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs). Real-life studies are needed to explore drug effects in unselected patients in routine circumstances and to provide higher generalizability results. This study explores the effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of fremanezumab in a real-life population of individuals affected by high-frequency episodic (HFEM: 8-14 days/month) or CM. Methods This is a 12-week multicenter, prospective, cohort, real-life study. We considered all consecutive patients affected by HFEM or CM visited at 9 Italian headache centers from 28/07/2020 to 11/11/2020. Eligible patients were given subcutaneous fremanezumab at the doses of 225 mg monthly or 675 mg quarterly, according to their preference. Primary study endpoints were the change in monthly migraine days (MMDs) in HFEM and monthly headache days (MHDs) in CM patients at weeks 9-12 compared to baseline. Secondary endpoints encompassed variation in monthly analgesic intake (MAI), Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), HIT-6 and MIDAS scores, and ≥50%, ≥75% and 100% responder rates at the same time intervals. Results 67 migraine patients had received ≥1 subcutaneous fremanezumab dose and were considered for safety analysis, while 53 patients completed 12 weeks of treatment and were included also in the effectiveness analysis. Fremanezumab was effective in both HFEM and CM, inducing at week 12 a significant reduction in MMDs (-4.6, p<0.05), MHDs (-9.4, p<0.001), MAI (-5.7, p<0.05; -11.1, p<0.001), NRS (-3.1, p<0.001; -2.5, p<0.001), and MIDAS scores (-58.3, p<0.05; -43.7; p<0.001). HIT-6 was significantly reduced only in HFEM patients (-18.1, p<0.001). Remission from CM to episodic migraine and from MO to no-MO occurred in 75% and 67.7% of the patients. The ≥50%, ≥75% and 100% responder rates at week 12 were 76.5%, 29.4% and 9.9% in HFEM and 58.3%, 25% and 0% in CM. Younger age emerged as a positive response predictor (OR=0.91; 95% CI 0.85-0.98, p=0.013). Treatment-emergent adverse events were uncommon (5.7%) and mild. No patient discontinued fremanezumab for any reason. Conclusions Fremanezumab seems more effective in real-life than in RCTs. Younger age emerges as a potential response predictor.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (6) ◽  
pp. 28929-28945
Luciana Ferreira Mattos Colli ◽  
Thiago Pereira De Abreu ◽  
Guacira Corrêa De Matos ◽  
Letícia Coli Louvisse De Abreu ◽  
Carlos Rangel Rodrigues ◽  

The principal global pandemic is Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), the early diagnosis and the premature treatment is the main current strategies in combating the development and spread of the disease. Antiretroviral therapy is effective and safe, what is sought nowadays is compliance and convenience for the patient. Different countries adopt different combinations of antiretroviral drugs when using the fixed-dose combination (FDC). The study design was a meta-analysis with clinical trials, patients experienced and naïve of treatment. The Pubmed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane databases were searched for studies reporting AIDS treatment. The primary outcome was viral load and another outcome is adverse events. The results of the main analysis included 5224 patients. Since there was significant heterogeneity between studies, random effects were selected, and they showed an event rate of 0.67 (95%CI from 0.57 to 0.77). The exploratory analysis showed the general drug effects are not consistently significant along time, and treatments of longer times are more efficient. Specifically, the random analyses of 6 months and 1 year did not show significant drug effects on viral load, while a significant effect of 71% (95% CI from 0.61 to 0.80) in a very heterogeneous analyses (I296%). First, d4T-3TC-NVP showed a mean rate of only 21% efficacy and the second, EFV-TDF-FTC did not reach statistical significance (p=0.07). This meta-analysis shows that fixed-dose combination therapy is tolerability, safety and effective, occurred viral load suppression between patients on FDC.

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