Presynaptic GABAB receptors differentially modulate GABA release from cholecystokinin and parvalbumin interneurons onto CA1 pyramidal neurons: a cell type-specific labeling and activating study

2022 ◽  
pp. 136448
Caifeng Shao ◽  
Jiaxue Dong ◽  
Mingwei Zhao ◽  
Shenhao Liu ◽  
Xue Wang ◽  
eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Caryn R Hale ◽  
Kirsty Sawicka ◽  
Kevin Mora ◽  
John J Fak ◽  
Jin Joo Kang ◽  

Neurons rely on translation of synaptic mRNAs in order to generate activity-dependent changes in plasticity. Here we develop a strategy combining compartment-specific CLIP and TRAP in conditionally tagged mice to precisely define the ribosome-bound dendritic transcriptome of CA1 pyramidal neurons. We identify CA1 dendritic transcripts with differentially localized mRNA isoforms generated by alternative polyadenylation and alternative splicing, including many which have altered protein-coding capacity. Among dendritic mRNAs, FMRP targets were found to be overrepresented. Cell-type specific FMRP-CLIP and TRAP in microdissected CA1 neuropil revealed 383 dendritic FMRP targets and suggests that FMRP differentially regulates functionally distinct modules in CA1 dendrites and cell bodies. FMRP regulates ~15-20% of mRNAs encoding synaptic functions and 10% of chromatin modulators, in the dendrite and cell body, respectively. In the absence of FMRP, dendritic FMRP targets had increased ribosome association, consistent with a function for FMRP in synaptic translational repression. Conversely, downregulation of FMRP targets involved in chromatin regulation in cell bodies and suggest a role for FMRP in stabilizing mRNAs containing stalled ribosomes in this compartment. Together, the data support a model in which FMRP regulates the translation and expression of synaptic and nuclear proteins within different compartments of a single neuronal cell type.

Laura Ceolin ◽  
Nathalie Bouquier ◽  
Jihane Vitre-Boubaker ◽  
Stéphanie Rialle ◽  
Dany Severac ◽  

2017 ◽  
Vol 55 (05) ◽  
pp. e28-e56
S Macheiner ◽  
R Gerner ◽  
A Pfister ◽  
A Moschen ◽  
H Tilg

2020 ◽  
Vol 528 (13) ◽  
pp. 2218-2238 ◽  
Attilio Iemolo ◽  
Patricia Montilla‐Perez ◽  
I‐Chi Lai ◽  
Yinuo Meng ◽  
Syreeta Nolan ◽  

2021 ◽  
Moataz Dowaidar

Autophagy is a double-edged sword in cancer, and numerous aspects should be taken into account before deciding on the most effective strategy to target the process. The fact that several clinical studies are now ongoing does not mean that the patient group that may benefit from autophagy-targeting medicines has been identified. Autophagy inhibitors that are more potent and specialized, as well as autophagy indicators, are also desperately required. The fact that these inhibitors only work against tumors that rely on autophagy for survival (RAS mutants) makes it difficult to distinguish them from tumors that continue to develop even when autophagy is absent. Furthermore, mutations such as BRAF have been shown to make tumors more susceptible to autophagy suppression, suggesting that targeting such tumours may be a viable strategy for overcoming their chemotherapy resistance. In the meantime, we are unable to identify if autophagy regulation works in vivo or whether it selectively targets a disease while inflicting injury to other healthy organs and tissues. A cell-type-specific impact appears to be observed with such therapy. As a result, it is just as important to consider the differences between tumors that originate in different organs as it is to consider the signaling pathways that are similar across them. For a therapy or cure to be effective, the proposed intervention must be tailored to the specific needs of each patient.Over the last several years, a growing amount of data has implicated autophagy in a variety of disorders, including cancer. In normal cells, this catabolic process is also required for cell survival and homeostasis. Despite the fact that medications targeting intermediates in the autophagy signaling pathway are being created and evaluated at both the preclinical and clinical levels, given the complicated function of autophagy in cancer, we still have a long way to go in terms of establishing an effective therapeutic approach. This article discusses current tactics for exploiting cancer cells' autophagy dependency, as well as obstacles in the area. We believe that the unanswered concerns raised in this work will stimulate researchers to investigate previously unknown connections between autophagy and other signaling pathways, which might lead to the development of novel, highly specialized autophagy therapies.

1993 ◽  
Vol 13 (9) ◽  
pp. 5301-5314 ◽  
G S Huh ◽  
R O Hynes

We have investigated the regulation of splicing of one of the alternatively spliced exons in the rat fibronectin gene, the EIIIB exon. This 273-nucleotide exon is excluded by some cells and included to various degrees by others. We find that EIIIB is intrinsically poorly spliced and that both its exon sequences and its splice sites contribute to its poor recognition. Therefore, cells which recognize the EIIIB exon must have mechanisms for improving its splicing. Furthermore, in order for EIIB to be regulated, a balance must exist between the EIIIB splice sites and those of its flanking exons. Although the intron upstream of EIIIB does not appear to play a role in the recognition of EIIIB for splicing, the intron downstream contains sequence elements which can promote EIIIB recognition in a cell-type-specific fashion. These elements are located an unusually long distance from the exon that they regulate, more than 518 nucleotides downstream from EIIIB, and may represent a novel mode of exon regulation.

2000 ◽  
Vol 191 (8) ◽  
pp. 1281-1292 ◽  
Raelene J. Grumont ◽  
Steve Gerondakis

In lymphocytes, the Rel transcription factor is essential in establishing a pattern of gene expression that promotes cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Here we show that mitogen-induced expression of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 4 (IRF-4), a lymphoid-specific member of the IFN family of transcription factors, is Rel dependent. Consistent with IRF-4 functioning as a repressor of IFN-induced gene expression, the absence of IRF-4 expression in c-rel−/− B cells coincided with a greater sensitivity of these cells to the antiproliferative activity of IFNs. In turn, enforced expression of an IRF-4 transgene restored IFN modulated c-rel−/− B cell proliferation to that of wild-type cells. This cross-regulation between two different signaling pathways represents a novel mechanism that Rel/nuclear factor κB can repress the transcription of IFN-regulated genes in a cell type–specific manner.

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