Specific Role
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2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (6) ◽  
pp. 135-148
Rachmat Hidayat ◽  
Joko Marwoto ◽  
Lusia Hayati

All body functions depend on cell integrity. Therefore, understanding cell biology is intrinsically important for understanding disease. A vast amount of information reveals how the cell behaves like an organism with many social cells. At the heart of cell biology is cell communication—how messages originate and are transmitted, received, interpreted, and used by cells. This efficient communication between, and within the cell maintains the function of the cell and its specialization. Intercellular signals enable each cell to determine its position and specific role. Cells must demonstrate a "chemical preference" for other cells and the environment that surrounds them to maintain the integrity of the whole organism. When they no longer tolerate this preference, the conversation ends and the cell adapts (sometimes changes in function) or becomes vulnerable to isolation, injury, illness, or even death. This review explains the function of each component in the cell and its role in life.

2022 ◽  
pp. 146144482110677
Orlando Woods

This article argues that the motivations for investing money in gacha games can be a function of the affective embedding of players within the game, and the game within broader circuits of cultural affinity and appeal. While research on gacha games – and the specific role of loot boxes therein – has emphasised their associations with gambling, I contend that affect is another trigger that can motivate seemingly irrational playing behaviours. The affective embeddings of gacha games motivate players to curate aesthetic assemblages of virtual content that enable the mediated expression of the self. Drawing on qualitative data generated among young Singapore-based players of gacha games, I explore how the acquisition of characters, skins and collections can be motivated by the emotional payoff that comes from relationality rather than gambling.

2021 ◽  
pp. 61-75
Zalina Mairamovna Dzokaeva

Non-profit field in the national economy of Russia, which significance, functionality and specific role is rather problematic to formulate unambiguously, examined in the article. This is equally characteristic of other countries on our planet. The reason for this is the diversity of forms and purposes, and the richness of typology. It is customary to distinguish the basic functionality of NPOs – economic, social and institutional. Historically, the importance of NCOs in the formation of statehood cannot be overestimated, as the process is largely initiated thanks to NCOs, emanating from the masses of the people, changing established social relations, introducing new tools and trends of independent governance, focusing on specific spiritual and social values.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
Tsvetelina Nenkova ◽  

The optimal functioning of a country’s economy depends on the implemented tax policy, which in turn depends on the degree of the development of the tax system. A specific role among the tax forms, included in the tax system, is played by direct income taxes, which are levied on natural persons. These taxes are the subject of the research in this paper, particularly their organization. The article also pays attention to the preferences introduced, leading to changes in the direct individual income taxes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
pp. 317-341
Aleksandra Dugushina ◽  

This paper discusses female spaces and rituals in two sacred sites in the Albanian-Slavonic borderlands that are shared by Christian and Muslim communities. Based on fieldwork material, the article first gives an overview of the infrastructure, various functions and female interrelations of the ‘Ladies’ Beach’ in the city of Ulcinj, Montenegro, which brings together stable local and spontaneously emerging female communities from different ethnic and religious backgrounds. The second part explores an example of a mixed pilgrimage in the village of Letnica in Kosovo, paying special attention to female ritual practices related to fertility and childbirth as an integral context for the different scenarios in which the shrine is visited. By examining rituals experienced by women, the paper shows that female practices aimed at reproductive well-being play a specific role in inter-group contacts in shared shrines and have an impact on the process of sharing by different ethnic and confessional communities.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Wen Hao Neo ◽  
Yiran Meng ◽  
Alba Rodriguez-Meira ◽  
Muhammad Z. H. Fadlullah ◽  
Christopher A. G. Booth ◽  

AbstractYolk sac (YS) hematopoiesis is critical for the survival of the embryo and a major source of tissue-resident macrophages that persist into adulthood. Yet, the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of YS hematopoiesis remains poorly characterized. Here we report that the epigenetic regulator Ezh2 is essential for YS hematopoiesis but dispensable for subsequent aorta–gonad–mesonephros (AGM) blood development. Loss of EZH2 activity in hemogenic endothelium (HE) leads to the generation of phenotypically intact but functionally deficient erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs), while the generation of primitive erythroid cells is not affected. EZH2 activity is critical for the generation of functional EMPs at the onset of the endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition but subsequently dispensable. We identify a lack of Wnt signaling downregulation as the primary reason for the production of non-functional EMPs. Together, our findings demonstrate a critical and stage-specific role of Ezh2 in modulating Wnt signaling during the generation of EMPs from YS HE.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. 1056-1056
Neyda Ma Mendoza-Ruvalcaba ◽  
Elva Dolores Arias-Merino ◽  
Karla Patricia Vázquez Núnez ◽  
Marlene Alvarado Rodriguez

Abstract The cognitive functioning as a general measure, is a criterion commonly used to define and operationalize successful aging(SA). The aim of this study is to analyze the specific role of memory (objective and subjective) and its relationship with the use of smart technology (ST) and SA.(Project-Conacyt-256589) Population based, random sample included n=453 community-dwelling older adults 60-years and older (mean age=72.51,SD=8.11 years,59.4%women). Memory was assessed through working memory(Digit Span Backward WAIS-IV), episodic memory, metamemory(self-report), subjective memory, and learning potential(RAVLT). SA was operationalized as no important disease, no disability, physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and being actively engaged. Participants were asked if they use cellphone, computer, or tablet. Pearson′s correlation test and linear regression models were performed. In total 11.2% were successful agers.53.6% used cellphone,14% computer,8% tablet, 44.1% any devise.Results show significant correlation between SA and subjective memory, learning potential and the use of ST. Results of the multiple regression analysis emerged on a significant model using the entered method:F=26.05,p>.000, explaining 21.4% of the variance of SA. Although objective memory measurements were no significant for SA, all memory measurements were related to the use of ST. Knowledge generated by this study reveals the specific role of the metamemory on the SA, underlining the relevance of subjectivity on aging. We need to reflect about the limitations of older adults to access to a digital world in order to achieve a SA.

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