The merits of microcalorimetry below 1°K for high resolution spectroscopy has become widely recognized on theoretical grounds. By combining the high efficiency, broadband spectral sensitivity of traditional photoelectric detectors with the high resolution capabilities characteristic of dispersive spectrometers, the microcalorimeter could potentially revolutionize spectroscopic measurements of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. In actuality, however, the performance of prototype instruments has fallen short of theoretical predictions and practical detectors are still unavailable for use as laboratory and space-based instruments. These issues are currently being addressed by the new collaborative initiative between LLNL, LBL, U.C.I., U.C.B., and U.C.D.. Microcalorimeters of various types are being developed and tested at temperatures of 1.4, 0.3, and 0.1°K. These include monolithic devices made from NTD Germanium and composite configurations using sapphire substrates with temperature sensors fabricated from NTD Germanium, evaporative films of Germanium-Gold alloy, or material with superconducting transition edges. A new approache to low noise pulse counting electronics has been developed that allows the ultimate speed of the device to be determined solely by the detector thermal response and geometry. Our laboratory studies of the thermal and resistive properties of these and other candidate materials should enable us to characterize the pulse shape and subsequently predict the ultimate performance. We are building a compact adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for conveniently reaching 0.1°K in the laboratory and for use in future satellite-borne missions. A description of this instrument together with results from our most recent experiments will be presented.
Some of the most important applications of STEM depend on the variety of imaging and diffraction made possible by the versatility of the detector system and the serial nature, of the image acquisition. A special detector system, previously described, has been added to our STEM instrument to allow us to take full advantage of this versatility. In this, the diffraction pattern in the detector plane may be formed on either of two phosphor screens, one with P47 (very fast) phosphor and the other with P20 (high efficiency) phosphor. The light from the phosphor is conveyed through a fiber-optic rod to an image intensifier and TV system and may be photographed, recorded on videotape, or stored digitally on a frame store. The P47 screen has a hole through it to allow electrons to enter a Gatan EELS spectrometer. Recently a modified SEM detector has been added so that high resolution (10Å) imaging with secondary electrons may be used in conjunction with other modes.
There is increasing interest in growing epitaxial GaAs on Si substrates. Such a device structure would allow low-cost substrates to be used for high-efficiency cascade- junction solar cells. However, high-defect densities may result from the large lattice mismatch (∼4%) between the GaAs epilayer and the silicon substrate. These defects can act as nonradiative recombination centers that can degrade the optical and electrical properties of the epitaxially grown GaAs. For this reason, it is important to optimize epilayer growth conditions in order to minimize resulting dislocation densities. The purpose of this paper is to provide an indication of the quality of the epitaxially grown GaAs layers by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to examine dislocation type and density as a function of various growth conditions. In this study an intermediate Ge layer was used to avoid nucleation difficulties observed for GaAs growth directly on Si substrates. GaAs/Ge epilayers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on Si substrates in a manner similar to that described previously.
High-resolution field-emission-gun scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) has recently emerged as an extremely powerful method for characterizing the micro- or nanostructure of materials. The development of high efficiency backscattered-electron detectors has increased the resolution attainable with backscattered-electrons to almost that attainable with secondary-electrons. This increased resolution allows backscattered-electron imaging to be utilized to study materials once possible only by TEM. In addition to providing quantitative information, such as critical dimensions, SEM is more statistically representative. That is, the amount of material that can be sampled with SEM for a given measurement is many orders of magnitude greater than that with TEM.In the present work, a Hitachi S-900 FESEM (operating at 5kV) equipped with a high-resolution backscattered electron detector, has been used to study the α-Fe2O3 enhanced or seeded solid-state phase transformations of sol-gel alumina and solid-state reactions in the NiO/α-Al2O3 system. In both cases, a thin-film cross-section approach has been developed to facilitate the investigation. Specifically, the FESEM allows transformed- or reaction-layer thicknesses along interfaces that are millimeters in length to be measured with a resolution of better than 10nm.
Rationally designing low-content and high-efficiency noble metal nanodots offers opportunities to enhance electrocatalytic performances for water splitting. However, the preparation of highly dispersed nanodots electrocatalysts remains a challenge. Herein, we...
Novel textiles have received a lot of attention from researchers in the last decade due to some of their unique features. The introduction of intelligent materials into textile structures offers an opportunity to develop multifunctional textiles, such as sensing, reacting, conducting electricity and performing energy conversion operations. In this research work nanocomposite-based highly piezoelectric and electroactive β-phase new textile has been developed using the pad-dry-cure method. The deposition of poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) − carbon nanofillers (CNF) − tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), Si(OCH2CH3)4 was acquired on a treated textile substrate using coating technique followed by evaporation to transform the passive (non-functional) textile into a dynamic textile with an enhanced piezoelectric β-phase. The aim of the study is the investigation of the impact the coating of textile via piezoelectric nanocomposites based PVDF-CNF (by optimizing piezoelectric crystalline phase). The chemical composition of CT/PVDF-CNC-TEOS textile was detected by qualitative elemental analysis (SEM/EDX). The added of 0.5% of CNF during the process provides material textiles with a piezoelectric β-phase of up to 50% has been measured by FTIR experiments. These results indicated that CNF has high efficiency in transforming the phase α introduced in the unloaded PVDF, to the β-phase in the case of nanocomposites. Consequently, this fabricated new textile exhibits glorious piezoelectric β-phase even with relatively low coating content of PVDF-CNF-TEOS. The study demonstrates that the pad-dry-cure method can potentially be used for the development of piezoelectric nanocomposite-coated wearable new textiles for sensors and energy harvesting applications. We believe that our study may inspire the research area for future advanced applications.