Effects of glucokinase activator, DS-7309, on embryo-fetal developmental toxicity in rats and rabbits

Chiharu Kuwata ◽  
Toshiki Matsuoka ◽  
Yoshiko Ohshima ◽  
Satoko Yahagi ◽  
Toshiyuki Watanabe ◽  
2019 ◽  
Jae-Hwan Lee ◽  
Seon Mi Park ◽  
Eui-Man Jung ◽  
Eui-Bae Jeung

1988 ◽  
Valerie G. Coppes ◽  
Charlotte L. Speckman ◽  
Jr Korte ◽  
Don W.

Toxicology ◽  
1994 ◽  
Vol 86 (3) ◽  
pp. 163-174 ◽  
Makoto Ema ◽  
Hiro Amano ◽  
Yoshiyuki Ogawa

1998 ◽  
Vol 26 (4) ◽  
pp. 421-480
Krys Bottrill

Recent developments in biomarkers relating to the interrelationship of diet, disease and health were surveyed. Most emphasis was placed on biomarkers of deleterious effects, since these are of greatest relevance to the subject of this review. The area of greatest activity was found to be that relating to biomarkers of mutagenic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. This is also one of the major areas of concern in considerations of the beneficial and deleterious effects of dietary components, and also the area in which regulatory testing requires studies of the longest duration. A degree of progress has also been made in the identification and development of biomarkers relating to certain classes of target organ toxicity. Biomarkers for other types of toxicity, such as immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity and developmental toxicity, are less developed, and further investigation in these areas is required before a comprehensive biomarker strategy can be established. A criticism that recurs constantly in the biomarker literature is the lack of standardisation in the methods used, and the lack of reference standards for the purposes of validation and quality control. It is encouraging to note the growing acknowledgement of the need for validation of biomarkers and biomarker assays. Some validation studies have already been initiated. This review puts forward proposals for criteria to be used in biomarker validation. More discussion on this subject is required. It is concluded that the use of biomarkers can, in some cases, facilitate the implementation of the Three Rs with respect to the testing of food chemicals and studies on the effects of diet on health. The greatest potential is seen to be in the refinement of animal testing, in which biomarkers could serve as early and sensitive endpoints, in order to reduce the duration of the studies and also reduce the number of animals required. Biomarkers could also contribute to establishing a mechanistic basis for in vitro test systems and to facilitating their validation and acceptance. Finally, the increased information that could result from the incorporation of biomarker determinations into population studies could reduce the need for supplementary animal studies. This review makes a number of recommendations concerning the prioritisation of future activities on dietary biomarkers in relation to the Three Rs. It is emphasised, however, that further discussions will be required among toxicologists, epidemiologists and others researching the relationship between diet and health.

2021 ◽  
pp. 109158182098607
Narendra S. Deshmukh ◽  
Shailesh Gumaste ◽  
Silma Subah ◽  
Nathasha Omal Bogoda

Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous ethanolamine playing a protective and homeodynamic role in animals and plants. Prenatal developmental toxicity of PEA was tested following oral administration to pregnant female Wistar rats, from days 0 to 19 of gestation, at dosage of 250, 500, or 1,000 mg/kg body weight, according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Test Guideline No. 414. On gestation day 20, cesarean sections were performed on the dams, followed by examination of their ovaries and uterine contents. The fetuses were further examined for external, visceral, and skeletal abnormalities. Palmitoylethanolamide did not cause any alterations at any of the given dosages in the measured maternal parameters of systemic toxicity (body weight, food consumption, survival, thyroid functions, organ weight, histopathology), reproductive toxicity (preimplantation and postimplantation losses, uterus weight, number of live/dead implants and early/late resorptions, litter size and weights, number of fetuses, their sex ratio), and fetal external, visceral, or skeletal observations. Any alterations that were recorded were “normal variations” or “minor anomalies,” which were unrelated to treatment with PEA. Under the condition of this prenatal study, the no-observed-adverse-effect level of PEA for maternal toxicity, embryotoxicity, fetotoxicity, and teratogenicity in rats was found to be >1,000 mg/kg body weight/d. It indicates that PEA is well tolerated by and is safe to pregnant rats even at a high dose of 1,000 mg/kg body weight/d, equivalent to a human dose of greater than 9.7 g/d. This prenatal developmental toxicity study contributes greatly in building a robust safety profile for PEA.

Metabolites ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (6) ◽  
pp. 401
Katherine M. Gerber ◽  
Nicholas B. Whitticar ◽  
Daniel R. Rochester ◽  
Kathryn L. Corbin ◽  
William J. Koch ◽  

Insulin secretion is widely thought to be maximally stimulated in glucose concentrations of 16.7-to-30 mM (300-to-540 mg/dL). However, insulin secretion is seldom tested in hyperglycemia exceeding these levels despite the Guinness World Record being 147.6 mM (2656 mg/dL). We investigated how islets respond to 1-h exposure to glucose approaching this record. Insulin secretion from human islets at 12 mM glucose intervals dose-dependently increased until at least 72 mM glucose. Murine islets in 84 mM glucose secreted nearly double the insulin as in 24 mM (p < 0.001). Intracellular calcium was maximally stimulated in 24 mM glucose despite a further doubling of insulin secretion in higher glucose, implying that insulin secretion above 24 mM occurs through amplifying pathway(s). Increased osmolarity of 425-mOsm had no effect on insulin secretion (1-h exposure) or viability (48-h exposure) in murine islets. Murine islets in 24 mM glucose treated with a glucokinase activator secreted as much insulin as islets in 84 mM glucose, indicating that glycolytic capacity exists above 24 mM. Using an incretin mimetic and an adenylyl cyclase activator in 24 mM glucose enhanced insulin secretion above that observed in 84 mM glucose while adenylyl cyclase inhibitor reduced stimulatory effects. These results highlight the underestimated ability of islets to secrete insulin proportionally to extreme hyperglycemia through adenylyl cyclase activity.

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