insulin secretion
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2022 ◽  
Vol 146 ◽  
pp. 112494
Author(s):  
Phutthida Kongthitilerd ◽  
Thavaree Thilavech ◽  
Marisa Marnpae ◽  
Weiqiong Rong ◽  
Shaomian Yao ◽  
...  

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 376
Author(s):  
Christian Göbl ◽  
Micaela Morettini ◽  
Benedetta Salvatori ◽  
Wathik Alsalim ◽  
Hana Kahleova ◽  
...  

Background: glucagon secretion and inhibition should be mainly determined by glucose and insulin levels, but the relative relevance of each factor is not clarified, especially following ingestion of different macronutrients. We aimed to investigate the associations between plasma glucagon, glucose, and insulin after ingestion of single macronutrients or mixed-meal. Methods: thirty-six participants underwent four metabolic tests, based on administration of glucose, protein, fat, or mixed-meal. Glucagon, glucose, insulin, and C-peptide were measured at fasting and for 300 min following food ingestion. We analyzed relationships between time samples of glucagon, glucose, and insulin in each individual, as well as between suprabasal area-under-the-curve of the same variables (ΔAUCGLUCA, ΔAUCGLU, ΔAUCINS) over the whole participants’ cohort. Results: in individuals, time samples of glucagon and glucose were related in only 26 cases (18 direct, 8 inverse relationships), whereas relationship with insulin was more frequent (60 and 5, p < 0.0001). The frequency of significant relationships was different among tests, especially for direct relationships (p ≤ 0.006). In the whole cohort, ΔAUCGLUCA was weakly related to ΔAUCGLU (p ≤ 0.02), but not to ΔAUCINS, though basal insulin secretion emerged as possible covariate. Conclusions: glucose and insulin are not general and exclusive determinants of glucagon secretion/inhibition after mixed-meal or macronutrients ingestion.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 245-247
Author(s):  
Farah Ahsan ◽  
Naeem Qureshi ◽  
Sumera Samreen ◽  
Sonali Kukreti

We aimed to provide correlation of Fasting & PP C-peptide with HbA1C in patients of T2 Diabetes Mellitus.: 50 patients admitted in IPD of Medicine department in Shri Mahant Indresh Hospital from April-August 2021. Serum samples taken for fasting & PP C-peptide and HbA1C for patients of T2 Diabetes Mellitus and run on VITROS 5600/7600 which is based on dry chemistry. : We took 50 patients who were T2DM then we did fasting C peptide & PP C-peptide and HbA1c. Out of 50, 15 were females &35 were males. Out of 50, 45 patients had raised HbA1C maximum around 8-10.Mean & SD for fasting C-Peptide for males was 1.346±1.070 & for females 2.442±2.57.Mean & SD for Post prandiol C-Peptide for males was 4.208±5.020 & for females 2.993±2.130.It was significant for fasting C- Peptide with P value 0.0371 and non significant for PP C peptide with p value 0.3731.: Insulin secretion estimated by measurement of Fasting C-Peptide was either normal or raised in newly diagnosed T2DM subjects in my study indicating predominant role of insulin resistence in the etiology. Further research can explore the exact contribution of insulin resistence and insulin secretory defects in this area.


Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 128
Author(s):  
Yaser Albadr ◽  
Andrew Crowe ◽  
Rima Caccetta

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is rising globally and this disease is proposed to be the next pandemic after COVID-19. Although the cause of type 2 diabetes mellitus is unknown, it is believed to involve a complex array of genetic defects that affect metabolic pathways which eventually lead to hyperglycaemia. This hyperglycaemia arises from an inability of the insulin-sensitive cells to sufficiently respond to the secreted insulin, which eventually results in the inadequate secretion of insulin from pancreatic β-cells. Several treatments, utilising a variety of mechanisms, are available for type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, more medications are needed to assist with the optimal management of the different stages of the disease in patients of varying ages with the diverse combinations of other medications co-administered. Throughout modern history, some lead constituents from ancient medicinal plants have been investigated extensively and helped in developing synthetic antidiabetic drugs, such as metformin. Teucrium polium L. (Tp) is a herb that has a folk reputation for its antidiabetic potential. Previous studies indicate that Tp extracts significantly decrease blood glucose levels r and induce insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells in vitro. Nonetheless, the constituent/s responsible for this action have not yet been elucidated. The effects appear to be, at least in part, attributable to the presence of selected flavonoids (apigenin, quercetin, and rutin). This review aims to examine the reported glucose-lowering effect of the herb, with a keen focus on insulin secretion, specifically related to type 2 diabetes mellitus. An analysis of the contribution of the key constituent flavonoids of Tp extracts will also be discussed.


Author(s):  
Akram Ahangarpour ◽  
Hassan Sharifinasab ◽  
Heibatullah Kalantari ◽  
Mohammad Amin Dehghani ◽  
Nader Shakiba Maram ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Marta Garaulet ◽  
Jesus Lopez-Minguez ◽  
Hassan S Dashti ◽  
Céline Vetter ◽  
Antonio Miguel Hernández-Martínez ◽  
...  

<strong>Objective: </strong>We tested whether the concurrence of food intake and elevated concentration of endogenous melatonin, as occurs in late eating, results in impaired glucose control, in particular in carriers of the type 2 diabetes-associated G allele in the melatonin-receptor-1-b gene (<i>MTNR1B</i>).<strong> </strong> <p><strong>Research Design and Methods:</strong> In a Spanish natural late eating population, a randomized, cross-over study design was performed, following an 8-h fast. Each participant <strong>(n=845) </strong>underwent two evening 2-h 75g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT): an early condition scheduled 4 hours prior to habitual bedtime <strong>(“early dinner-timing”)</strong>, and a late condition scheduled 1 hour prior to habitual bedtime <strong>(“late dinner-timing”)</strong>, simulating an early and a late dinner timing, respectively.<strong> </strong>Differences in postprandial glucose and insulin responses were determined using incremental area under the curve (AUC) calculated by the trapezoidal method between <strong>early and late dinner-timing.</strong><strong></strong></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> <strong>Melatonin serum levels were </strong>3.5-fold <strong>higher in the late <i>vs. </i>early condition, with late dinner-timing resulting in </strong>6.7% <strong>lower insulin</strong> <strong>area-under-the-curve (AUC) and </strong>8.3%<strong> higher glucose</strong> <strong>AUC. In the late condition<i> MTNR1B</i> G-allele carriers had lower glucose tolerance than non-carriers. Genotype differences in glucose tolerance were attributed to reductions in </strong>β-cell <strong>function (<i>P<sub>int</sub></i><sub> </sub>AUCgluc=0.009, <i>P<sub>int</sub></i><sub> </sub>CIR=0.022, <i>P<sub>int </sub></i>DI=0.018).</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> <strong>Concurrently high endogenous melatonin and carbohydrate intake, as typical for late eating, impair glucose tolerance, especially in <i>MTNR1B</i> G-risk-allele carriers<i>, </i>attributable to insulin secretion defects.</strong></p>


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Marta Garaulet ◽  
Jesus Lopez-Minguez ◽  
Hassan S Dashti ◽  
Céline Vetter ◽  
Antonio Miguel Hernández-Martínez ◽  
...  

<strong>Objective: </strong>We tested whether the concurrence of food intake and elevated concentration of endogenous melatonin, as occurs in late eating, results in impaired glucose control, in particular in carriers of the type 2 diabetes-associated G allele in the melatonin-receptor-1-b gene (<i>MTNR1B</i>).<strong> </strong> <p><strong>Research Design and Methods:</strong> In a Spanish natural late eating population, a randomized, cross-over study design was performed, following an 8-h fast. Each participant <strong>(n=845) </strong>underwent two evening 2-h 75g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT): an early condition scheduled 4 hours prior to habitual bedtime <strong>(“early dinner-timing”)</strong>, and a late condition scheduled 1 hour prior to habitual bedtime <strong>(“late dinner-timing”)</strong>, simulating an early and a late dinner timing, respectively.<strong> </strong>Differences in postprandial glucose and insulin responses were determined using incremental area under the curve (AUC) calculated by the trapezoidal method between <strong>early and late dinner-timing.</strong><strong></strong></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> <strong>Melatonin serum levels were </strong>3.5-fold <strong>higher in the late <i>vs. </i>early condition, with late dinner-timing resulting in </strong>6.7% <strong>lower insulin</strong> <strong>area-under-the-curve (AUC) and </strong>8.3%<strong> higher glucose</strong> <strong>AUC. In the late condition<i> MTNR1B</i> G-allele carriers had lower glucose tolerance than non-carriers. Genotype differences in glucose tolerance were attributed to reductions in </strong>β-cell <strong>function (<i>P<sub>int</sub></i><sub> </sub>AUCgluc=0.009, <i>P<sub>int</sub></i><sub> </sub>CIR=0.022, <i>P<sub>int </sub></i>DI=0.018).</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> <strong>Concurrently high endogenous melatonin and carbohydrate intake, as typical for late eating, impair glucose tolerance, especially in <i>MTNR1B</i> G-risk-allele carriers<i>, </i>attributable to insulin secretion defects.</strong></p>


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Author(s):  
Zhenhuan Jiang ◽  
Gang Wang ◽  
Lingling Meng ◽  
Yunzhao Tang ◽  
Min Yang ◽  
...  

Background. Elevated uric acid (UA) has been found to damage pancreatic β-cell, promote oxidative stress, and cause insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), a major active monomer extracted from Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge. which belongs to TRIB. Galegeae (Br.) Torrey et Gray, Papilionaceae, exhibits various activities in a pathophysiological environment and has been widely employed to treat diseases. However, the effects of AS-IV on UA-induced pancreatic β-cell damage need to be investigated and the associating mechanism needs to be elucidated. This study was designed to determine the protective effects and underlying mechanism of AS-IV on UA-induced pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in T2D. Methods. UA-treated Min6 cells were exposed to AS-IV or wortmannin. Thereafter, the 3-(45)-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1)-35-di-phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometry were employed to determine the effect of AS-IV on cell proliferation and apoptosis, respectively. Insulin secretion was evaluated using the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) assay. Finally, western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were performed to determine the effect of AS-IV on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway in UA-treated cells. Results. AS-IV had no cytotoxic effects on Min6 cells. UA significantly suppressed Min6 cell growth, promoted cell apoptosis, and enhanced caspase-3 activity; however, AS-IV abolished these effects in a dose-dependent manner. Further, decreased insulin secretion was found in UA-treated Min6 cells compared to control cells, and the production of insulin was enhanced by AS-IV in a dose-dependent manner. AS-IV significantly increased phosphorylated (p)-AKT expression and the ratio of p-AKT/AKT in Min6 cells exposed to UA. No evident change in AKT mRNA level was found in the different groups. However, the effects of AS-IV on UA-stimulated Min6 cells were reversed by 100 nM wortmannin. Conclusion. Collectively, our data suggest that AS-IV protected pancreatic β-cells from UA-treated dysfunction by activating the PI3K/AKT pathway. Such findings suggest that AS-IV may be an efficient natural agent against T2D.


Diabetes Care ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Marta Garaulet ◽  
Jesus Lopez-Minguez ◽  
Hassan S. Dashti ◽  
Céline Vetter ◽  
Antonio Miguel Hernández-Martínez ◽  
...  

OBJECTIVE We tested whether the concurrence of food intake and elevated concentration of endogenous melatonin, as occurs in late eating, results in impaired glucose control, in particular in carriers of the type 2 diabetes–associated G allele in the melatonin receptor-1b gene (MTNR1B). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a Spanish natural late-eating population, a randomized, crossover study was performed. Each participant (n = 845) underwent two evening 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests following an 8-h fast: an early condition scheduled 4 h prior to habitual bedtime (“early dinner timing”) and a late condition scheduled 1 h prior to habitual bedtime (“late dinner timing”), simulating an early and a late dinner timing, respectively. Differences in postprandial glucose and insulin responsesbetween early and late dinner timing were determined using incremental area under the curve (AUC) calculated by the trapezoidal method. RESULTS Melatonin serum levels were 3.5-fold higher in the late versus early condition, with late dinner timing resulting in 6.7% lower insulin AUC and 8.3% higher glucose AUC. In the late condition, MTNR1B G-allele carriers had lower glucose tolerance than noncarriers. Genotype differences in glucose tolerance were attributed to reductions in β-cell function (P for interaction, Pint glucose area under the curve = 0.009, Pint corrected insulin response = 0.022, and Pint Disposition Index = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS Concurrently high endogenous melatonin and carbohydrate intake, as typical for late eating, impairs glucose tolerance, especially in MTNR1B G-risk allele carriers, attributable to insulin secretion defects.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ivar Noordstra ◽  
Cyntha M. van den Berg ◽  
Fransje W. J. Boot ◽  
Eugene A. Katrukha ◽  
Ka Lou Yu ◽  
...  

Insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells is regulated by cortical complexes that are enriched at the sites of adhesion to extracellular matrix facing the vasculature. Many components of these complexes, including Bassoon, RIM, ELKS and liprins, are shared with neuronal synapses. Here, we show that insulin secretion sites also contain non-neuronal proteins LL5β and KANK1, which in migrating cells organize exocytotic machinery in the vicinity of integrin-based adhesions. Depletion of LL5β or focal adhesion disassembly triggered by myosin II inhibition perturbed the clustering of secretory complexes and attenuated the first wave of insulin release. While previous analyses in vitro and in neurons suggested that secretory machinery might assemble through liquid-liquid phase separation, analysis of endogenously labeled ELKS in pancreatic islets indicated that its dynamics is inconsistent with such a scenario. Instead, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and single molecule imaging showed that ELKS turnover is driven by binding and unbinding to low-mobility scaffolds. Both the scaffold movements and ELKS exchange were stimulated by glucose treatment. Our findings help to explain how integrin-based adhesions control spatial organization of glucose-stimulated insulin release.


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