The objective of this study was to determine the effects of centrally administered taurine on rectal temperature, behavioral responses and brain amino acid metabolism under isolation stress and the presence of co-injected corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Neonatal chicks were centrally injected with saline, 2.1 pmol of CRF, 2.5 μmol of taurine or both taurine and CRF. The results showed that CRF-induced hyperthermia was attenuated by co-injection with taurine. Taurine, alone or with CRF, significantly decreased the number of distress vocalizations and the time spent in active wakefulness, as well as increased the time spent in the sleeping posture, compared with the saline- and CRF-injected chicks. An amino acid chromatographic analysis revealed that diencephalic leucine, isoleucine, tyrosine, glutamate, asparagine, alanine, β-alanine, cystathionine and 3-methylhistidine were decreased in response to taurine alone or in combination with CRF. Central taurine, alone and when co-administered with CRF, decreased isoleucine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and cysteine, but increased glycine concentrations in the brainstem, compared with saline and CRF groups. The results collectively indicate that central taurine attenuated CRF-induced hyperthermia and stress behaviors in neonatal chicks, and the mechanism likely involves the repartitioning of amino acids to different metabolic pathways. In particular, brain leucine, isoleucine, cysteine, glutamate and glycine may be mobilized to cope with acute stressors.
Dexamethasone (DEX) induces dysregulation of protein turnover, leading to muscle atrophy and impairment of glucose metabolism. Positive protein balance, i.e., rate of protein synthesis exceeding rate of protein degradation, can be induced by dietary essential amino acids (EAAs). In this study, we investigated the roles of an EAA-enriched diet in the regulation of muscle proteostasis and its impact on glucose metabolism in the DEX-induced muscle atrophy model. Mice were fed normal chow or EAA-enriched chow and were given daily injections of DEX over 10 days. We determined muscle mass and functions using treadmill running and ladder climbing exercises, protein kinetics using the D2O labeling method, molecular signaling using immunoblot analysis, and glucose metabolism using a U-13C6 glucose tracer during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The EAA-enriched diet increased muscle mass, strength, and myofibrillar protein synthesis rate, concurrent with improved glucose metabolism (i.e., reduced plasma insulin concentrations and increased insulin sensitivity) during the OGTT. The U-13C6 glucose tracing revealed that the EAA-enriched diet increased glucose uptake and subsequent glycolytic flux. In sum, our results demonstrate a vital role for the EAA-enriched diet in alleviating the DEX-induced muscle atrophy through stimulation of myofibrillar proteins synthesis, which was associated with improved glucose metabolism.
Post-meal triglycerides are an independent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor, but the ideal high-fat meal formulation has yet to be standardized and is one challenge prohibiting widespread clinical adoption of postprandial triglyceride assessment. Two general approaches often used are giving individuals a high-fat meal scaled to body weight or a standardized high-fat meal containing a set fat bolus. A recent expert panel statement has endorsed the latter, specifying 75 g of fat as an appropriate fat dosage. Despite this recommendation, no study to date has tested whether there is a difference in postprandial triglycerides or if risk classification is affected based on these different approaches. We recruited 16 generally healthy individuals with roughly equal distribution among body mass index (BMI)class (n = 5–6/per BMI category) and sex (n = 2–3 M/F) within each BMI class. Each participant underwent two abbreviated fat tolerance tests separated by ~1 week: one with a scaled to body weight high-fat meal (9 kcal/kg; 70% fat) and a standardized meal containing 75 g of fat (70% fat). Fasting, 4 h, and absolute change in triglycerides across the entire sample and within each BMI category were similar regardless of high-fat meal. Only one participant with obesity had discordant postprandial responses between the fat tolerance tests (i.e., different CVD risk classification). These findings suggest that, within a certain range of fat intake, generally healthy individuals will have a similar postprandial triglyceride response. Considering the greater convenience of utilizing standardized high-fat meals, our data suggest that a standardized high-fat meal may be acceptable for large-scale studies and clinical implementation.
Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), a disease characterized by the ectopic ossification of a spinal ligament, promotes neurological disorders associated with spinal canal stenosis. While blocking ectopic ossification is mandatory to prevent OPLL development and progression, the mechanisms underlying the condition remain unknown. Here we show that expression of hydroxyacid oxidase 1 (Hao1), a gene identified in a previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) as an OPLL-associated candidate gene, specifically and significantly decreased in fibroblasts during osteoblast differentiation. We then newly established Hao1-deficient mice by generating Hao1-flox mice and crossing them with CAG-Cre mice to yield global Hao1-knockout (CAG-Cre/Hao1flox/flox; Hao1 KO) animals. Hao1 KO mice were born normally and exhibited no obvious phenotypes, including growth retardation. Moreover, Hao1 KO mice did not exhibit ectopic ossification or calcification. However, urinary levels of some metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were significantly lower in Hao1 KO compared to control mice based on comprehensive metabolomic analysis. Our data indicate that Hao1 loss does not promote ectopic ossification, but rather that Hao1 functions to regulate the TCA cycle in vivo.
Infant hydrocephalus poses a severe global health burden; 80% of cases occur in the developing world where patients have limited access to neurosurgical care. Surgical treatment combining endoscopic third ventriculostomy and choroid plexus cauterization (ETV/CPC), first practiced at CURE Children’s Hospital of Uganda (CCHU), is as effective as standard ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) placement while requiring fewer resources and less post-operative care. Although treatment focuses on controlling ventricle size, this has little association with treatment failure or long-term outcome. This study aims to monitor the progression of hydrocephalus and treatment response, and investigate the association between cerebral physiology, brain growth, and neurodevelopmental outcomes following surgery. We will enroll 300 infants admitted to CCHU for treatment. All patients will receive pre/post-operative measurements of cerebral tissue oxygenation (SO2), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) using frequency-domain near-infrared combined with diffuse correlation spectroscopies (FDNIRS-DCS). Infants will also receive brain imaging, to monitor tissue/ventricle volume, and neurodevelopmental assessments until two years of age. This study will provide a foundation for implementing cerebral physiological monitoring to establish evidence-based guidelines for hydrocephalus treatment. This paper outlines the protocol, clinical workflow, data management, and analysis plan of this international, multi-center trial.
The different molecular profiles of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between ventricular and lumbar compartments remain elusive, especially in the context of leptomeningeal metastasis (LM), which affects CSF flow. We evaluated CSF metabolomic and proteomic profiles based on the compartments and the diagnosis of spinal LM, proved by MRI from 20 paired ventricular and lumbar CSF samples of LM patients, including 12 spinal LM (+) samples. In metabolome analysis, 9512 low-mass ions (LMIs) were identified—7 LMIs were abundant in all lumbar versus paired ventricular CSF samples, and 3 LMIs were significantly abundant in all ventricular CSF. In comparisons between spinal LM (+) CSF and LM (−) CSF, 105 LMIs were discriminative for spinal LM (+) CSF. In proteome analysis, a total of 1536 proteins were measured. A total of 18 proteins, including complement C3, were more highly expressed in all lumbar CSF, compared with paired ventricular CSF, while 82 proteins, including coagulation factor V, were higher in the ventricular CSF. Of 37 discriminative proteins, including uteroglobin and complement component C8 gamma chain, 4 were higher in all spinal LM (+) CSF versus spinal LM (−) CSF. We further evaluated metabolic pathways associated with these discriminative proteins using the Gene Ontology database. We found that 16/17 spinal LM (+) pathways, including complement activation, were associated with lumbar discriminative proteins, whereas only 2 pathways were associated with ventricular-discriminative proteins. In conclusion, we determined that metabolite and protein profiles differed between paired lumbar and ventricular CSF samples. The protein profiles of spinal LM (+) CSF showed more similarity with the lumbar CSF than the ventricular CSF. Thus, we suggest that CSF LMIs and proteins could reflect LM disease activity and that LM-associated differences in CSF are more likely to be present in the lumbar compartment.
Blueberry belongs to the genus Vaccinium L. in the Ericaceae and is an economically important shrub that produces small berries that are rich in nutrients. There were differences in the appearance of blueberry leaves under different shade treatments. To explore the differences in metabolites in blueberry leaves under different shading treatments, nontargeted liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) metabonomic analysis was performed. Different shade intensities resulted in significant differences in the contents of metabolites. A total of 6879 known metabolites were detected, including 750 significantly differentially expressed metabolites, including mainly lipids and lipid-like molecules and phenylpropanoid and polyketide superclass members. Based on a Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, the flavone and flavonol biosynthesis pathways were the most significantly enriched. The results of this study provide a reference and scientific basis for the establishment of a high-quality and high-yield shaded blueberry cultivation system.
Plants produce numerous structurally and functionally diverse signaling metabolites, yet only relatively small fractions of which have been discovered. Multi-omics has greatly expedited the discovery as evidenced by increasing recent works reporting new plant signaling molecules and relevant functions via integrated multi-omics techniques. The effective application of multi-omics tools is the key to uncovering unknown plant signaling molecules. This review covers the features of multi-omics in the context of plant signaling metabolite discovery, highlighting how multi-omics addresses relevant aspects of the challenges as follows: (a) unknown functions of known metabolites; (b) unknown metabolites with known functions; (c) unknown metabolites and unknown functions. Based on the problem-oriented overview of the theoretical and application aspects of multi-omics, current limitations and future development of multi-omics in discovering plant signaling metabolites are also discussed.
The term ‘aerobic glycolysis’ has been in use ever since Warburg conducted his research on cancer cells’ proliferation and discovered that cells use glycolysis to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) rather than the more efficient oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos) pathway, despite an abundance of oxygen. When measurements of glucose and oxygen utilization by activated neural tissue indicated that glucose was consumed without an accompanied oxygen consumption, the investigators who performed those measurements also termed their discovery ‘aerobic glycolysis’. Red blood cells do not contain mitochondria and, therefore, produce their energy needs via glycolysis alone. Other processes within the central nervous system (CNS) and additional organs and tissues (heart, muscle, and so on), such as ion pumps, are also known to utilize glycolysis only for the production of ATP necessary to support their function. Unfortunately, the phenomenon of ‘aerobic glycolysis’ is an enigma wherever it is encountered, thus several hypotheses have been produced in attempts to explain it; that is, whether it occurs in cancer cells, in activated neural tissue, or during postprandial or exercise metabolism. Here, it is argued that, where the phenomenon in neural tissue is concerned, the prefix ‘aerobic’ in the term ‘aerobic glycolysis’ should be removed. Data collected over the past three decades indicate that L-lactate, the end product of the glycolytic pathway, plays an essential role in brain energy metabolism, justifying the elimination of the prefix ‘aerobic’. Similar justification is probably appropriate for other tissues as well.
Central carbon metabolism comprises the metabolic pathways in the cell that process nutrients into energy, building blocks and byproducts. To unravel the regulation of this network upon glucose perturbation, several metabolic models have been developed for the microorganism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These dynamic representations have focused on glycolysis and answered multiple research questions, but no commonly applicable model has been presented. This review systematically evaluates the literature to describe the current advances, limitations, and opportunities. Different kinetic models have unraveled key kinetic glycolytic mechanisms. Nevertheless, some uncertainties regarding model topology and parameter values still limit the application to specific cases. Progressive improvements in experimental measurement technologies as well as advances in computational tools create new opportunities to further extend the model scale. Notably, models need to be made more complex to consider the multiple layers of glycolytic regulation and external physiological variables regulating the bioprocess, opening new possibilities for extrapolation and validation. Finally, the onset of new data representative of individual cells will cause these models to evolve from depicting an average cell in an industrial fermenter, to characterizing the heterogeneity of the population, opening new and unseen possibilities for industrial fermentation improvement.