positive control
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 35 (2) ◽  
Lei Shi ◽  
Yiyan Yang ◽  
Xue Yang ◽  
Guojun Zhao ◽  
Fuhao Chen ◽  

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
I. Liaqat ◽  
A. Mahreen ◽  
M. Arshad ◽  
N. Arshad

Abstract Origanum vulgare has been of great interest in academia and pharma industry due to its antioxidant, antifungal and antitumor properties. The present study aimed to find the anti-MRSA potential and in vivo toxicity assessments of O. vulgare. O. vulgare extract was used to monitor anti-MRSA activity in mice. Following MRSA established infection in mice (Mus musculus), treatment with O. vulgare was continued for 7 days. Autopsies were performed and re-isolation, gross lesion scoring and bacterial load in various organs were measured. Additionally, blood sample was analysed for hematological assays. Toxicity assessment of O. vulgare potential as medicine was done at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg by evaluating liver and kidney functions. Bacterial load and gross lesion in lungs and heart were significantly low compared to positive control following O. vulgare treatment. Likewise, O. vulgare treated groups had hematological, neutrophil and TLC values similar to control groups. Increased AST, ALP and total bilirubin alongwith marked hepatocellular degeneration and distortion around the central vein, inflammatory cell infiltration, and cytoplasmic vacuolization of hepatic cells was observed at higher dose. It is concluded that crude extract of O. vulgare may contain beneficial secondary metabolites and in future may be explored for curing infectious diseases.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
N. C. Ghisi ◽  
V. B. Silva ◽  
A. A. Roque ◽  
E. C. Oliveira

Abstract For many centuries human populations have been suffering and trying to fight with disease-bearing mosquitoes. Emerging and reemerging diseases such as Dengue, Zika, and Chikungunya affect billions of people around the world and recently has been appealing to control with chemical pesticides. Malathion (MT) is one of the main pesticides used against mosquitoes, the vectors of these diseases. This study aimed to assess cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of the malathion for the bioindicator Allium cepa L. using a multivariate and integrative approach. Moreover, an appendix table was compiled with all available literature of insecticides assessed by the Allium cepa system to support our discussion. Exposures during 48h to 0.5 mg mL-1 and 1.0 mg mL-1 MT were compared to the negative control (distilled water) and positive control (MMS solution at 10 mg L-1). The presence of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei frequency, and mitotic index abnormalities was evaluated. Anaphase bridges were the alterations with higher incidence and presented a significantly elevated rate in the concentration of 0.5 mg mL-1, including when compared to the positive control. The integrative discriminant analysis summarizes that MT in assessed concentrations presented effects like the positive control, corroborating its potential of toxicity to DNA. Therefore, it is concluded that MT in its pure composition and in realistic concentrations used, has genotoxic potential in the biological assessment of A. cepa cells. The multivariate integrative analysis was fundamental to show a whole response of all data, providing a global view of the effect of MT on DNA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 32 (1) ◽  
pp. 10-15
Bin Wu ◽  
Runshi Xie ◽  
Gary W. Knox ◽  
Hongmin Qin ◽  
Mengmeng Gu

Crapemyrtle bark scale [CMBS (Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae)], a newly emerged pest in the United States, has spread to 16 U.S. states and unexpectedly spread on a native species american beautyberry (Callicarpa americana) in Texas and Louisiana in 2016 since it was initially reported on crapemyrtles (Lagerstroemia sp.) in Texas in 2004. The infestation of CMBS negatively impacted the flowering of crapemyrtles. We observed the infestation on the two most commercially available edible fig (Ficus carica) cultivars Beer’s Black and Chicago Hardy in a preliminary trial in 2018. To help estimate CMBS potential in aggravating risks to the ecosystem stability and the green industry, we conducted a host range and suitability test using ‘Bok Tower’ american beautyberry as a positive control with other eight beautyberry (Callicarpa) species [mexican beautyberry (C. acuminata), ‘Profusion’ bodinieri beautyberry (C. bodinieri), ‘Issai’ purple beautyberry (C. dichotoma), japanese beautyberry (C. japonica var. luxurians), ‘Alba’ white-fruited asian beautyberry (C. longissima), taiwan beautyberry (C. pilosissima), luanta beautyberry (C. randaiensis), and willow-leaf beautyberry (C. salicifolia)] and three fig (Ficus) species [creeping fig (F. pumila), roxburgh fig (F. auriculata), and waipahu fig (F. tikoua)] over 25 weeks. All the tested beautyberry species and waipahu fig sustainably supported the development and reproduction of nymphal CMBS and were confirmed as CMBS hosts. Furthermore, comparing with the control, mexican beautyberry, ‘Profusion’ bodinieri beautyberry, taiwan beautyberry, and willow-leaf beautyberry were significantly less suitable, while ‘Issai’ purple beautyberry, japanese beautyberry, ‘Alba’ white-fruited asian beautyberry, and luanta beautyberry were as suitable as ‘Bok Tower’ american beautyberry. Thus, when using beautyberries in landscapes, their different potential to host CMBS should be considered to minimize spreading CMBS through the native ecosystems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Takahiro Niikura ◽  
Takahiro Oda ◽  
Naoe Jimbo ◽  
Masato Komatsu ◽  
Keisuke Oe ◽  

Abstract Background Induced membrane (IM) is the key component of Masquelet reconstruction surgery for the treatment of bone defects. IM is formed around the cement spacer and is known to secrete growth factors and osteoinductive factors. However, there is limited evidence available concerning the presence of osteoinductive factors in IM. This study aimed to investigate the existence of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in IM harvested from patients during the treatment of bone defects using the Masquelet technique. Methods This study involved six patients whose bone defects had been treated using the Masquelet technique. The affected sites were the femur (n = 3) and the tibia (n = 3). During the second-stage surgery, 1 cm2 pieces of IM were harvested. Histological sections of IM were immunostained with anti-BMP-4, 6, 7, and 9 antibodies. Human bone tissue served as the positive control. Results The presence of BMP-4, 6, 7, and 9 was observed in all IM samples. Further, immunolocalization of BMP-4, 6, 7, and 9 was observed in blood vessels and fibroblasts in all IM samples. Immunolocalization of BMP-4, 6, 7, and 9 was also observed in bone tissue within the IM in one sample, in which osteogenesis inside the IM was observed. Conclusions This study showed that osteoinductive factors BMP-4, 6, 7, and 9 were present in the IM harvested from patients, providing evidence indicating that the Masquelet technique effectively contributes to healing large bone defects. Therefore, it may be possible for surgeons to omit the addition of BMPs to bone grafts, given the endogenous secretion of BMPs from the IM.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261014
Carlos Arana ◽  
Chaoying Liang ◽  
Matthew Brock ◽  
Bo Zhang ◽  
Jinchun Zhou ◽  

High viral transmission in the COVID-19 pandemic has enabled SARS‐CoV‐2 to acquire new mutations that may impact genome sequencing methods. The ARTIC.v3 primer pool that amplifies short amplicons in a multiplex-PCR reaction is one of the most widely used methods for sequencing the SARS-CoV-2 genome. We observed that some genomic intervals are poorly captured with ARTIC primers. To improve the genomic coverage and variant detection across these intervals, we designed long amplicon primers and evaluated the performance of a short (ARTIC) plus long amplicon (MRL) sequencing approach. Sequencing assays were optimized on VR-1986D-ATCC RNA followed by sequencing of nasopharyngeal swab specimens from fifteen COVID-19 positive patients. ARTIC data covered 94.47% of the virus genome fraction in the positive control and patient samples. Variant analysis in the ARTIC data detected 217 mutations, including 209 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and eight insertions & deletions. On the other hand, long-amplicon data detected 156 mutations, of which 80% were concordant with ARTIC data. Combined analysis of ARTIC + MRL data improved the genomic coverage to 97.03% and identified 214 high confidence mutations. The combined final set of 214 mutations included 203 SNVs, 8 deletions and 3 insertions. Analysis showed 26 SARS-CoV-2 lineage defining mutations including 4 known variants of concern K417N, E484K, N501Y, P618H in spike gene. Hybrid analysis identified 7 nonsynonymous and 5 synonymous mutations across the genome that were either ambiguous or not called in ARTIC data. For example, G172V mutation in the ORF3a protein and A2A mutation in Membrane protein were missed by the ARTIC assay. Thus, we show that while the short amplicon (ARTIC) assay provides good genomic coverage with high throughput, complementation of poorly captured intervals with long amplicon data can significantly improve SARS-CoV-2 genomic coverage and variant detection.

Liliana Aguilar Marcelino ◽  
Jesús Antonio Pineda Alegría ◽  
David Osvaldo Salinas-Sánchez ◽  
Víctor Manuel Hernández Velázquez ◽  
Gonzalo Iván Silva Aguayo ◽  

The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari Zehntner (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the main pest of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (Poaceae), in Mexico. To control this insect, farmers currently use synthetic chemical insecticides, which are toxic to humans and biodiversity. However, natural products are a promising potential source of safer alternative means to control different agricultural pests. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the insecticidal effect of contact by fumigation of pure molecules of four commercial fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, pentadecanoic and linoleic acids), the phytosterol ß -sitosterol, and the flavonoid rutin. The results showed that fatty acids were the most effective against M. sacchari ; the highest mortality rate (85%) was produced by linoleic acid and the LC 50 was 1,181 ppm, followed by stearic and palmitic acids with mortality percentages of 74 and 63%, respectively, at a concentration of 2,500 ppm at 72 h. The positive control, imidacloprid, had 100% mortality in 24 h and the tween 20 negative control exhibited 4% mortality in 72 h. Our results show that commercial fatty acids are effective against adults of M. sacchari , and can be considered an environmentally friendly alternative to the frequent use of synthetic chemical insecticides.

2022 ◽  
Akihiro Kishikawa ◽  
Satoshi Hamada ◽  
Ichiro Kamei ◽  
Yosuke Fujimoto ◽  
Kazuhiro Miyazaki ◽  

Abstract The cDNA library prepared from Lentinula edodes, Hokken 600 (H600), primordia was screened by using cDNA expressed specifically in Dictyostelium discoideum prestalk as a probe. Twenty-one clones, Le-Dd 1~21, were isolated from the L. edodes primordia cDNA library. Functional analysis of each gene was carried out by transformation into protoplast cells from L. edodes Mori 252 (M252) mycelia with the overexpression vector pLG-RasF1 of each gene because M252 protoplast cells were transformed with 11-fold higher efficiency than H600 cells. Transformants with the overexpression vector of Le-Dd10 formed a fruiting body at almost the same time as H600, a positive control, although M252, a negative control, did not form a fruiting body under culture conditions. This suggested that Le-Dd10 is involved in the formation of fruiting bodies. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis revealed that Le-Dd10 is located on No. 4 linkage group of L. edodes. The properties of Le-Dd10 products were investigated by Western blotting analysis using polyclonal antibodies against GST:Le-Dd10 fusion proteins. As a result, 56-kDa, 27-kDa, and 14-kDa protein bands appeared in primordial and fruiting body stages, although the expected molecular weight of the Le-Dd10 product was 50 kDa.

Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 87
Gokul Raj Kathamuthu ◽  
Nathella Pavan Kumar ◽  
Kadar Moideen ◽  
Chandrakumar Dolla ◽  
Paul Kumaran ◽  

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate like, and play a major role in restricting disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) disease before the activation of antigen-specific T cells. Additionally, the potential link and synergistic function between diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) has been recognized for a long time. However, the role of MAIT cells in latent TB (LTB) DM or pre-DM (PDM) and non-DM (NDM) comorbidities is not known. Hence, we examined the frequencies (represented as geometric means, GM) of unstimulated (UNS), mycobacterial (purified protein derivative (PPD) and whole-cell lysate (WCL)), and positive control (phorbol myristate acetate (P)/ionomycin (I)) antigen stimulated MAIT cells expressing Th1 (IFNγ, TNFα, and IL-2), Th17 (IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22), and cytotoxic (perforin (PFN), granzyme (GZE B), and granulysin (GNLSN)) markers in LTB comorbidities by uniform manifold approximation (UMAP) and flow cytometry. We also performed a correlation analysis of Th1/Th17 cytokines and cytotoxic markers with HbA1c, TST, and BMI, and diverse hematological and biochemical parameters. The UMAP analysis demonstrated that the percentage of MAIT cells was higher; T helper (Th)1 cytokine and cytotoxic (PFN) markers expressions were different in LTB-DM and PDM individuals in comparison to the LTB-NDM group on UMAP. Similarly, no significant difference was observed in the geometric means (GM) of MAIT cells expressing Th1, Th17, and cytotoxic markers between the study population under UNS conditions. In mycobacterial antigen stimulation, the GM of Th1 (IFNγ (PPD and WCL), TNFα (PPD and WCL), and IL-2 (PPD)), and Th17 (IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22 (PPD and/or WCL)) cytokines were significantly elevated and cytotoxic markers (PFN, GZE B, and GNLSN (PPD and WCL)) were significantly reduced in the LTB-DM and/or PDM group compared to the LTB-NDM group. Some of the Th1/Th17 cytokines and cytotoxic markers were significantly correlated with the parameters analyzed. Overall, we found that different Th1 cytokines and cytotoxic marker population clusters and increased Th1 and Th17 (IL-17A, IL-22) cytokines and diminished cytotoxic markers expressing MAIT cells are associated with LTB-PDM and DM comorbidities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 77-92
Setya Enti Rikomah ◽  
Devi Novia ◽  
Muhammad Fadhly

Randu plant leaves (Ceiba pentandra (L) Gaertn) are commonly used in traditional medicine, one of which is an analgesic with secondary metabolites which are thought to be analgesics, namely flavonoids. The purpose of this study was to determine the analgesic effectiveness of the ethanol extract cream of randu leaves (Ceiba pentandra (L) Gaertn) in white male mice (Mus musculus). The research on the analgesic effectiveness of the ethanol extract cream of randum leaves used the hot plate method and used male white mice as the experimental animal media. The soles of the hind legs of the mice were heated over hot plated with a temperature of 550C then the test animals were given the treatment which was divided into 5 treatment groups, namely positive control (Conterpain cream), negative control (F0), F1 (10%), F2 (15%), F3 (20%) and 1 normal group. The response of mice was calculated every 30 minutes in 120 minutes. The data obtained were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA statistical test followed by the Duncan test with a confidence level of 99%. The results of the one-way ANOVA test showed that there were significant differences between treatment groups (0.00 <0.05). The results of the Duncan test showed that the group that provided the best analgesic effectiveness was F2 (15%) but not better than Positive Control.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document