Positive Control
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Rida Rosa ◽  
Harrizul Rivai

Hypertension is also the leading cause of death worldwide. Treatment and control of hypertension help prevent cardiovascular death. Traditionally celery and garlic have been used as ingredients to lower high blood pressure by the people of South Sulawesi. Phytochemical testing was carried out to provide information about compounds' content in the formula of celery and garlic. Furthermore, the determination of the levels of alkaloids and saponins was carried out gravimetrically, the decision of the stories of phenols with a UV-Visible spectrophotometer, and the conclusion of the levels tannins with a UV spectrophotometer. Pharmacological testing using 25 white male rats were treated with doses of celery and garlic formula given to rats, namely 185 mg/ 200 g BW, 370 mg/ 200 g BW, 740 mg/ 200 g BW orally as test material. In the negative control, the rats were only given distilled water alone, and in the positive control, it was induced using 8% NaCl and 0.05% prednisone orally. The test solution was given for 21 days. The results of the phytochemical test showed that the celery and garlic ingredients contained positive alkaloids, saponins, phenols, tannins with levels of 1.8917 % alkaloids, 0.5885 % saponins, 1.6138 % phenols, and 1,3485 % tannins. Pharmacological test results showed systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly (p < 0.05).

2021 ◽  
pp. 27-30
Alvi Kusuma Wardani ◽  
Abdul Rahman Wahid ◽  
Miftahul Jannah

Introduction: The incidence of malaria is still very high in number in the world. Difficulty in treating malaria is caused by the resistance of malaria parasites to conventional drugs. An alternative treatment that can be used to treat malaria is to discover new drugs from natural ingredients. Aim: This study aimed to determine the activity of the Ashitaba leaf ethanolic extract as an antimalarial drug to Plasmodium falciparum strain 3D7. Methods: This study tested the activity of Ashitaba extract on the growth of P.falciparum in five concentrations, namely concentration of 0.01 ppm, 0.1 ppm, 1 ppm, 10 ppm, and 100 ppm. Results: The test results showed that the highest inhibitory effect was found on the concentration of 100 ppm with percent inhibition of 79.47 ± 26.91%. The 50% inhibition to parasites showed the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 2.09 ppm, compared to the positive control of which the IC50 of chloroquine was 0.007 ppm. Conclusion: Ashitaba leaf extract can be considered to have very active anti-malarial activity, because it has an IC50 value of less than 5 ppm.

2021 ◽  
pp. 148-151
Husnul Khuluq ◽  
Evi Marlina

Backround: Diarrhoea is a condition characterised by watery, loose stools that occurs more than three times daily. In Indonesian traditional medicine, salam leaves and jackfruit leaves have been used as herbal treatments for many conditions, including as antidiarrheal medicines. Aims: The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the antidiarrheal effect of a combination of Salam leaves and jackfruit leaves infusum induced by castor oil in rats. Method: The rats were divided into nine groups, where the negative control group was given CMC 1 %, the positive control group was given tannins, and five test groups were given the infusum with five comparisons of each dose administered orally. Castor oil was used as a stimulant of diarrhoea. Results: The results show that with all combinations of salam leaves: jackfruit leaves have antidiarrheal effects with decreased frequency of defecation, faeces consistency, and faeces weight at ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1, and 3:1 compared to the negative control (p < 0.05). Phytochemical test of the infusum indicated positive tannins. The antidiarrheal effect of both infusums might be due to the presence of tannins, which have anti-secretory effect in the intestinal lumen. Conclusions: The treatment with combination of salam leaves and jackfruit leaves infusum in rats induced by Castor oil has an antidiarrheal effect. The best result is a mixture of salam infusum: jackfruit infusum with 3:1 ratio.

2021 ◽  
pp. 168-171
Ika Purwidyaningrum ◽  
Jason Merari Peranginangin ◽  
Iyem Sahira

Introduction: The matoa plant (Pometia pinnata) leaves can be used to treat hypertension. Matoa leaves are thought to have antihypertensive activity because they contain flavonoids. These flavonoids can reduce blood pressure that is modulated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). It is suspected that matoa leaves have antihypertensive activity as they contain quercetin which is a compound that is presumed to be an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. Aims: This study aims to determine which extracts and fractions from matoa leaves are able to decrease angiotensin I levels. Methods: The extraction was done by maceration with 96% ethanol solvent and fractionated by a liquid method using an n-hexane fraction solvent, an ethyl acetate fraction, and a water fraction. In this study, 21 male Wistar rats were used as test animals and divided into seven groups: Group I was the normal control, group II was the negative control (CMC-Na 1%), group III was the positive control (Irbesartan), group IV was given matoa leaf extract with 60 mg/200g body weight ratio, Group V was given 2.34 mg/g fraction of n-hexane, Group VI was given ethyl acetate fraction 9.54 mg/200g ethyl acetate fraction, and Group VII was given water fraction 7.98 mg/200g water fraction. The data obtained was analysed using the Shapiro-Wilk test, the Levene test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: The results showed that the angiotensin I levels induced by angiotensin II were more significant (p < 0,05) than those in the normal and negative groups. The ethyl acetate fraction showed a 23.6% decrease in angiotensin I level, which was close to the 24.8% decrease in the positive group. The extract from the matoa leaves showed a 17.2% decrease in angiotensin I levels which were close to the 20% decrease in the positive group.

2021 ◽  
pp. 56-60
Asti Yunia Rindarwati

Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus consists of an array of dysfunction characterized by hyperglycemia. The activity of smooth pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus L.) leaves water extract on male Wistar rats. Objectives: This research was started by supplying simplicia, making smooth pigweed leaves water extract, and testing the hypoglycemic activity of smooth pigweed leaves water extract on male Wistar rats. Methods: The glucose tolerance method was used to determine the hypoglycemic activity of smooth pigweed leaves water extract. Male white rats were divided into five groups of six rats each: a positive control group (0.5% of tragacanth suspension), a comparison group (Diabinese suspension at a dose of 22.5 mg/kg body weight (bw)), and three test groups at doses of 50 mg/kg bw, 100 mg/kg bw, and 150 mg/kg bw. Results and conclusions: The most significant hypoglycemic activity was seen with the dose of 150 mg/kg bw in comparison with the control group at 90 minutes.

eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Ariel Israel ◽  
Alejandro A Schäffer ◽  
Assi Cicurel ◽  
Ilan Feldhamer ◽  
Ameer Tal ◽  

Background: Until COVID-19 drugs specifically developed to treat COVID-19 become more widely accessible, it is crucial to identify whether existing medications have a protective effect against severe disease. Towards this objective, we conducted a large population study in Clalit Health Services (CHS), the largest healthcare provider in Israel, insuring over 4.7 million members. Methods: Two case-control matched cohorts were assembled to assess which medications, acquired in the last month, decreased the risk of COVID‑19 hospitalization. Case patients were adults aged 18-95 hospitalized for COVID-19. In the first cohort, five control patients, from the general population, were matched to each case (n=6202); in the second cohort, two non-hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 positive control patients were matched to each case (n=6919). The outcome measures for a medication were: odds ratio (OR) for hospitalization, 95% confidence interval (CI), and the p‑value, using Fisher's exact test. False discovery rate was used to adjust for multiple testing. Results: Medications associated with most significantly reduced odds for COVID-19 hospitalization include: ubiquinone (OR=0.185, 95% CI (0.058 to 0.458), p<0.001), ezetimibe (OR=0.488, 95% CI ((0.377 to 0.622)), p<0.001), rosuvastatin (OR=0.673, 95% CI (0.596 to 0.758), p<0.001), flecainide (OR=0.301, 95% CI (0.118 to 0.641), p<0.001), and vitamin D (OR=0.869, 95% CI (0.792 to 0.954), p<0.003). Remarkably, acquisition of artificial tears, eye care wipes, and several ophthalmological products were also associated with decreased risk for hospitalization. Conclusions: Ubiquinone, ezetimibe and rosuvastatin, all related to the cholesterol synthesis pathway were associated with reduced hospitalization risk. These findings point to a promising protective effect which should be further investigated in controlled, prospective studies. Funding: This research was supported in part by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, NCI.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 280-285
Kiki Rizki Handayani ◽  
Ayu Wulandari

Developing countries use medicinal plants for aphrodisiac treatment, one of which is a pack plant (Smilax rotundifolia) which is commonly used to enlarge male genitalia in Papua Indonesia. Because these claims are not scientifically tested and proven, at this time This study aims to determine the effect of the ethanol extract of S. rotundifolia stem and leaf tubers on the parameters of sexual behavior in male Sprague Dawley rats. As well as fear the most effective plant parts have aphrodisiac activity. Thirty rats were divided into 5 groups (A-E) consisting of group A given 0.5% Na CMC colloid solution (normal control), group B given X-gra® suspension dosage 51.37 mg / kgBW (control positive), group C was given root ethanol extract dosage 200mg / kgBB, group D was given stem ethanol extract dosage 200mg / kgBB and group E was given leaf ethanol extract dosage 200mg / kgBB. The aphrodisiac test was observed on the 31st day with a ratio of male and female rats (1: 2). All parameters tested in the extract group showed significant differences with the normal group. This showed an aphrodisiac effect in all extract groups. The 200 mg / KgBB stem extract group reduced latent rates and intromission mounts as well as increased copulation rates, showing a marked increase in the number of intromissions, reduced ejaculatory latency and inter-intromission interval, and increased ejaculation frequency. which was not significant in the X-gra group (positive control) (p

Azizah Nada Septiawan ◽  
Emelda Emelda ◽  
Saddam Husein

<h1>Abstrak</h1><p>Radikal bebas adalah atom atau molekul yang mempunyai satu atau lebih elektron tetapi tidak mempunyai pasangan, agar mempunyai pasangan radikal bebas akan berikatan dengan elektron yang ada di sekitar dengan cara menyerang elektron tersebut. Antioksidan adalah suatu zat yang dapat menetralisir atau menyerap radikal bebas. Antioksidan berdasarkan sumbernya terbagi menjadi dua yaitu antioksidan alami dan antioksidan sintesis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas antioksidan pada kombinasi ekstrak etanol lidah buaya (<em>Aloe vera </em>L.) dan ganggang hijau (<em>Ulva lactuca </em>L.) dan nilai IC<sub>50</sub> pada kombinasi ekstrak etanol lidah buaya (<em>Aloe vera</em> L.) dan ganggang hijau (<em>Ulva lactuca </em>L.)</p><p>Jenis penelitian ini adalah eksperimental untuk mengetahui aktivitas antioksidan pada ekstrak tunggal dan kombinasi ekstrak lidah buaya (<em>Aloe vera </em>L.) dan ganggang hijau (<em>Ulva lactuca </em>L.) dengan perbandingan 1:1; 1:2 dan 2:1 dengan menggunakan metode DPPH. Hasil Pengujian aktivitas antioksidan dengan metode DPPH menunjukkan bahwa kontrol positif, ekstrak etanol lidah buaya tunggal, ganggang hijau tunggal berserta kombinasi dengan perbandingan 1:1; 1:2 dan 2:1 memiliki aktivitas antioksidan kuat sampai sangat kuat. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah kombinasi ekstrak etanol lidah buaya dan ganggang hijau 1:2 memiliki potensi antioksidan tertinggi dengan nilai IC<sub>50</sub> sebesar 16,51 µg/ml.</p><p><strong>Kata kunci:</strong> <em>Aloe vera</em>;<em> </em>Antioksidan;<em>  DPPH</em>;<em>  Ulva lactuca</em></p><p><em><br /></em></p><h1>Abstract<em></em></h1><p><em>Free</em><em> radicals are atoms or molecules that have one or more electrons but do not have a pair, so that they have a pair of free radicals that will bind to the electrons around them by attacking the electrons. Antioxidants are substances that can neutralize or absorb free radicals. Antioxidants based on the source are divided into two, namely natural antioxidants and synthetic antioxidants. This research aims to determine the antioxidant activity of the combination of aloe vera (Aloe vera L.) ethanol extract and green algae (Ulva lactuca L.) and the IC<sub>50</sub> value in the combination of aloe vera (Aloe vera L.) ethanol extract and green algae (Ulva lactuca L.) extract.</em></p><p><em>This type of research is experimental to determine the antioxidant activity of single and combined extracts of aloe vera (Aloe vera L.) and green algae (Ulva lactuca L.) with a ratio of 1:1; 1:2 and 2:1 using the DPPH method. The results of the antioxidant activity test using the DPPH method showed that the positive control, ethanol extract of single aloe vera, single green algae and their combination 1:1; 1:2; 2:1 had strong to very strong antioxidant activity.<strong> </strong>The combination of ethanol extract of aloe vera and green algae 1:2 has the highest antioxidant potential with an IC<sub>50 </sub>value of 16.51 µg/ml.</em></p><p><strong><em>Key words:</em></strong><em> Aloe vera</em>;<em> </em><em> Antioxidants</em>;<em> </em><em> DPPH</em>;<em>  Ulva lactuca</em><em></em></p><p><em><br /></em></p>

2021 ◽  
Joy Ifunanya Odimegwu ◽  
Fatiha Oyebola Olabisi

Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K.Schum. (Apocynaceae) seeds are known to possess cardioactive glycosides such as thevetin A, thevetin B, nerifolin etc. They are also used locally for general pain relief for which there is no scientific evidence to our knowledge. Arthralgia is regarded generally as pain without inflammation. It is endemic in the society and sufferers continue to imbibe pain relieving drugs in their tons all over the world. Analgesic activity test was carried out using the formalin-induced pain models, at 0.1g, 0.2g and 0.3g/kg doses of n-hexane extracts of Thevetia peruviana seeds (HTp) in Wistar mice. Diclofenac was used as positive control. Acute toxicity test was carried out at doses of 1000, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg weight of test subject. It was observed that HTp at concentrations of 0.1g, 0.2g and 0.3g/kg showed significant analgesic effect at compared to the control. The percentage inhibition observed was 29.60%, 44.80% and 50.72% for the early pain phase and 100% for the late pain phase respectively, indicating HTps NSAID-like property. HTp showed the highest percentage inhibition at 300 mg/kg (50.72 %) and significant; P < 0.005 pain reduction. HTp did not produce any toxicity up to a dose of 5000 mg/kg weight which is very interesting as the seeds are known for their toxicity due to the cardiac glycoside presence. The results of the study suggest that HTp does indeed relieve pain significantly in a dose dependent manner, thus justifying its use in management of arthralgia. Keywords: Arthralgia, Herbal medicine, Pain,Thevetia peruviana, yellow oleander

Marine Drugs ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (8) ◽  
pp. 416
Xiaoshuang Gou ◽  
Danmei Tian ◽  
Jihua Wei ◽  
Yihan Ma ◽  
Yixue Zhang ◽  

Marine fungi-derived natural products represent an excellent reservoir for the discovery of novel lead compounds with biological activities. Here, we report the identification of two new drimane sesquiterpenes (1 and 2) and six new polyketides (3–8), together with 10 known compounds (9–18), from a marine-derived fungus Penicillium sp. TW58-16. The planar structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR, which was supported by HR-ESI-MS data. The absolute configurations of these compounds were determined by experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and their optical rotations compared with those reported. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of compounds 1–18 revealed that compound 5 significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide (NO) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW264.7 cells, correlating with the inhibition of expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In addition, we revealed that compounds 1, 3–6, 14, 16, and 18 showed strong α-glucosidase inhibitory effects with inhibition rates of 35.4%, 73.2%, 55.6%, 74.4%, 32.0%, 36.9%, 88.0%, and 91.1%, respectively, which were comparable with or even better than that of the positive control, acarbose. Together, our results illustrate the potential of discovering new marine-based therapeutic agents against inflammation and diabetes mellitus.

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