Toxicity Study
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Gels ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 55
Syeda Sadia Batool Rizvi ◽  
Naveed Akhtar ◽  
Muhammad Usman Minhas ◽  
Arshad Mahmood ◽  
Kifayat Ullah Khan

This study aimed to enhance the solubility and release characteristics of docetaxel by synthesizing highly porous and stimuli responsive nanosponges, a nano-version of hydrogels with the additional qualities of both hydrogels and nano-systems. Nanosponges were prepared by the free radical polymerization technique and characterized by their solubilization efficiency, swelling studies, sol-gel studies, percentage entrapment efficiency, drug loading, FTIR, PXRD, TGA, DSC, SEM, zeta sizer and in vitro dissolution studies. In vivo toxicity study was conducted to assess the safety of the oral administration of prepared nanosponges. FTIR, TGA and DSC studies confirmed the successful grafting of components into the stable nano-polymeric network. A porous and sponge-like structure was visualized through SEM images. The particle size of the optimized formulation was observed in the range of 195 ± 3 nm. The fabricated nanosponges noticeably enhanced the drug loading and solubilization efficiency of docetaxel in aqueous media. The drug release of fabricated nanosponges was significantly higher at pH 6.8 as compared to pH 1.2 and 4.5. An acute oral toxicity study endorsed the safety of the system. Due to an efficient preparation technique, as well as its enhanced solubility, excellent physicochemical properties, improved dissolution and non-toxic nature, nanosponges could be an efficient and a promising approach for the oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs.

Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 24
Dahye Jeong ◽  
Hyosook Shin ◽  
Jinhee Lee ◽  
Junyoung Yang ◽  
Kikyung Jung ◽  

Chlorobutanol (CB) is used as a preservative in cosmetics and has antibacterial activity. This study investigated the single- and repeated-dose 28-day oral toxicity of a CB solvent in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. For the single-dose oral toxicity study, a dose of 62.5, 125, or 250 mg per kg of body weight (mg/kg b.w.) of CB was given once orally via gavage. For the repeated-dose 28-day toxicity study, the high dose was set as 100 mg/kg b.w./day, and the middle, middle-low, and low doses were set to 50, 25, and 12.5 mg/kg b.w./day, respectively. Body weight was not significantly changed in the repeated-dose toxicity study. Relative liver and kidney weights were significantly increased in both sexes of the 100 mg/kg b.w./day treatment group. However, there were histopathological changes in liver and kidney for females and males, respectively. These data suggested that the approximate lethal dose (ALD) of CB was over 250 mg/kg b.w./day in the single-dose study, and the no adverse effect level (NOAEL) for CB was over 50 and 12.5 mg/kg b.w./day for female and male rats in the repeated-dose toxicity study.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Yuan Fan ◽  
Yunxing Fu ◽  
Yuhang Zhou ◽  
Yu Liu ◽  
Baocheng Hao ◽  

Abstract Background Py-mulin is a new pleuromutilin derivative with potent antibacterial activities in vitro and in vivo, suggesting this compound may lead to a promising antibacterial drug after further development. The present study is aimed to evaluate the acute and subacute oral toxicity, and the genotoxicity with the standard Ames test according to standard protocols. Methods Acute oral toxicity of Py-mulin was determined using Kunming mice. The 28-day repeated dose oral toxicity study in SD rats was performed according to OECD guideline No. 407. The bacterial reverse mutation (Ames test) was carried out using four Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) strains TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA1535 with and without S9 metabolic activation. Results The LD50 values in acute oral toxicity were 2973 mg/kg (female mice) and 3891 mg/kg (male mice) calculated by the Bliss method. In subacute toxicity study, 50 mg/kg Py-mulin did not induce any abnormality in body weight, food consumption, clinical sign, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weight, and histopathology in all of the treatment groups. However, high doses of Py-mulin (100 and 300 mg/kg) displayed slightly hepatotoxicity to female rats. Furthermore, Py-mulin did not significantly increase the number of revertant colonies of four standard S. typhimurium strains with the doses of 0.16–1000 μg/plate in the Ames study. Conclusions Based on our findings, our study provides some information for the safety profile of Py-mulin.

2022 ◽  
pp. 112825
Dragana Javorac ◽  
Simona Tatović ◽  
Milena Anđelković ◽  
Aleksandra Repić ◽  
Katarina Baralić ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 41 ◽  
pp. 096032712110628
Yu-Juan Li ◽  
Kun Yang ◽  
Xue-Ming Long ◽  
Gang Xiao ◽  
Si-Juan Huang ◽  

Background Gelsenicine, one of the most toxic alkaloids of Gelsemium elegans Benth ( G. elegans), causes severe respiratory depression. However, its toxicity mechanisms are yet to be elucidated and no effective antidotes are available. Objective This study aimed to analyse the toxicity characteristics of gelsenicine. Methods Both acute and sub-acute toxicities were evaluated. Gelsenicine distribution and elimination in the central nervous system (CNS) and blood were observed. Effective antidotes for gelsenicine poisoning were screened. Results In the acute toxicity study, gelsenicine was highly toxic, and female rats exhibited greater sensitivity to gelsenicine than male rats (LD50 0.520 mg/kg vs 0.996 mg/kg, respectively). Death was primarily caused by respiratory failure. However, in the sub-acute toxicity study, no significant organ damage was observed. Gelsenicine was easily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and penetrated the blood–brain barrier, reaching peak concentrations in the CNS within 15 min and rapidly decreasing thereafter. Flumazenil or diazepam combined with epinephrine reversed gelsenicine toxicity and significantly improved survival rate in mice. Conclusions Gelsenicine is a highly toxic substance that affects nerve conduction without causing damage; the potential toxic mechanism is possibly associated with GABAA receptors. Our findings provide insights into the clinical treatment of gelsenicine -related poisoning and its toxicity mechanisms.

2021 ◽  
Vol 148 (12) ◽  
pp. 58-67
Pham Thi Van Anh ◽  
Nguyen Van Dam ◽  
Nguyen Van Dat ◽  
Pham Thanh Ky ◽  
Nguyen Trong Thong ◽  

Assessment of toxicities of DA.AMLODEPON HVD hard capsule on experimental animals. The acute toxicity of DA.AMLODEPON HVD was assessed on Swiss mice according to World Health Organization Guidance, and LD50 determination according to the method of Litchfield – Wilcoxon. The sub-chronic toxicity study of DA.AMLODEPON HVD at two doses (0.42 g/kg/day and 1.26g/kg/day) was conducted in rats for four consecutive weeks. After administration, general conditions and the body weight of rats were evaluated. Blood samples were collected for analyzing serum parameters before treatment (T0), second week (T1), and fourth week (T2). Histopathological analysis of livers and kidneys was observed at the end of the experiment. The results revealed that mice were taken up to a maximum dose of 39.15 g/kg with no symptoms of acute toxicity, LD50 of DA.AMLODEPON HVD has not been determined. The sub-chronic toxicity study at two doses did not change the body weight of rats, general conditions. The parameters for structures and functions of livers and kidneys and microscopic of the livers and kidneys are in a normal range during the study period.

2021 ◽  
Vol 148 (12) ◽  
pp. 24-31
Le Thanh Xuan ◽  
Le Thi Nhat Ngoc ◽  
Tran Quang Minh ◽  
Vu Viet Hang ◽  
Pham Thi Van Anh ◽  

The present study aimed to investigate the sub-chronic toxicity of “Phong thap dan” (PTD) tablets through oral administration in experimental animal. The sub-chronic toxicity was evaluated by the WHO recommendation in Wistar rats at doses of 0.72 g/kg/day (equal to recommended human dose) and 2.16 g/kg/day (3 times as high as recommended human dose). In the sub-chronic experimental group, the PTD was administered orally daily for 8 consecutive weeks. In the evaluation of sub-chronic toxicity, there were no behavioral and physiological change or sign of toxicity. The result of the hematological and biological parameters after administration of PTD tablets showed no change. The histopathology analysis of livers and kidneys indicated that no significant difference was observed between the exposed and unexposed rat groups. In conclusion, “Phong thap dan” tablets did not produce sub-chronic toxicity in Wistar rats.

July Silva Ferreira ◽  
Alanne Lucena de Brito ◽  
Silvana Tavares Paz ◽  
Humberto de Moura Barbosa ◽  
Jeymesson Raphael Cardoso Vieira ◽  

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