scholarly journals Intravenous gene transfer throughout the brain of infant Old World primates using AAV

2022 ◽  
Miguel R Chuapoco ◽  
Nicholas Flytzanis ◽  
Nick Goeden ◽  
J Christopher Octeau ◽  
Kristina M Roxas ◽  

Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) can enable robust and safe gene delivery to the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). While the scientific community has developed numerous neurotropic AAV variants for systemic gene-transfer to the rodent brain, there are few AAVs that efficiently access the CNS of higher order primates. We describe here AAV.CAP-Mac, an engineered AAV variant that enables systemic, brain-wide gene delivery in infants of two Old World primate species--the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and the green monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus). We identified CAP-Mac using a multi-species selection strategy, initially screening our library in the adult common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and narrowing our pool of test-variants for another round of selection in infant macaques. In individual characterization, CAP-Mac robustly transduces human neurons in vitro and Old World primate neurons in vivo, where it targets all lobes of cortex, the cerebellum, and multiple subcortical regions of disease relevance. We use CAP-Mac for Brainbow-like multicolor labeling of macaque neurons throughout the brain, enabling morphological reconstruction of both medium spiny neurons and cortical pyramidal cells. Because of its broad distribution throughout the brain and high neuronal efficiency in infant Old World primates compared to AAV9, CAP-Mac shows promise for researchers and clinicians alike to unlock novel, noninvasive access to the brain for efficient gene transfer.

2013 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 24-43 ◽  
Yoichi Inoue ◽  
Waidi Sinun ◽  
Shigeto Yosida ◽  
Kazuo Okanoya

Mueller’s gibbons (Hylobates muelleri) sing both sex-specific and duet songs. These songs are thought to be involved in territory maintenance, as well as the maintenance of pair or family bonds. However, few observational studies have examined how gibbons interact with their neighbors through song in the wild. We have been conducting field observations of wild gibbon groups in northeast Borneo since 2001. In the Borneo Rainforest Lodge (BRL) and Danum Valley Field Center (DVFC) at the Danum Valley Conservation Area (DVCA), we observed seven episodes of alternating songs between males. Here, we describe the process of song exchange between males. During male interactions, song bouts rarely overlapped and were alternately emitted. Several studies have reported antiphonal vocalizations in New World and Old World primate species, but rarely in apes. Our observations of antiphonal songs in gibbons indicate that gibbons not only unilaterally advertise information, but also interactively communicate with neighbors and family members through songs. Since gibbons are phylogenetically similar to humans, and turn-taking has an important role in human conversation, our research on gibbon communication may provide insight into the evolution of human language.

1998 ◽  
Vol 72 (3) ◽  
pp. 1870-1875 ◽  
Jens Mayer ◽  
Eckart Meese ◽  
Nikolaus Mueller-Lantzsch

ABSTRACT The coding capacity for retroviral Gag and Env proteins has been maintained in human endogenous retroviruses of the HERV-K family. HERV-K homologous sequences have been found in all Old World primates. Here, we examined Old World primate species for the presence of full-length HERV-K gag and env genes and the presence of gag and env open reading frames as determined by the protein truncation test. Full-length HERV-Kenv genes were found in DNAs of all Old World primate species, whereas open reading frames for Env protein were found solely in human, chimpanzee, and gorilla DNAs. The mutational event leading to two HERV-K types was found to have occurred after the separation of hominids from lower Old World primates and before the expansion of hominids. Full-length HERV-K gag genes in hominids displayed a 96-bp deletion compared to those in lower Old World primates. The ancient gag variant has not been maintained during hominid evolution. Open reading frames for HERV-K Gag have been found in all Old World primates except chimpanzees. Our study of the HERV-K family during Old World primate evolution contributes to the understanding of their possible biological functions in the host genomes.

Behaviour ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 157 (8-9) ◽  
pp. 807-822
Stefano Vaglio ◽  
Louise Ducroix ◽  
Maria Rodriguez Villanueva ◽  
Rosanna Consiglio ◽  
Ayong Julia Kim ◽  

Abstract Copulation calls are mating-associated vocalizations that are common in primates, with females vocalizing after copulation in several Old World monkeys and apes. Baboon females typically produce copulation calls that correlate with fertile phase. Calls are, thus, regarded as an upshot of cycle physiology and sexually selected calls. Here, we describe three captive troops of olive baboons wherein, against expectation, females suppressed vocalizing during copulations. Vaginal cytology, together with sexual swelling observations, confirmed that females experienced full receptive cycles. Ovulation did not affect vocal probability during sex, while copulation calls were predicted by male ejaculation just as in other Old World primate species. Results cast doubt on the existence of physiological triggers for baboon copulation calls. Social factors may instead play a larger role. Alterations in social structure (as typically observed in the wild) may be implemented strategically as captive enrichment in order to reveal how females in highly social primates change sexual strategies and, therefore, the use of their copulation calls.

1998 ◽  
Vol 72 (4) ◽  
pp. 3205-3212 ◽  
Amir Moghaddam ◽  
Joachim Koch ◽  
Bethany Annis ◽  
Fred Wang

ABSTRACT Lymphocryptoviruses (LCVs) naturally infecting Old World nonhuman primates are closely related to the human LCV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and share similar genome organization and sequences, biologic properties, epidemiology, and pathogenesis. LCVs can efficiently immortalize B lymphocytes from the autologous species, but the ability of a given LCV to immortalize B cells from other Old World primate species is variable. We found that LCV from rhesus monkeys did not immortalize human B cells, and EBV did not immortalize rhesus monkey B cells. In this study, baboon LCV could not immortalize human peripheral blood B cells but could readily immortalize rhesus monkey B cells. Thus, efficient LCV-induced B-cell immortalization across distant Old World primate species appears to be restricted by a species-specific block. To further characterize this species restriction, we first cloned the rhesus monkey LCV major membrane glycoprotein and discovered that the binding epitope for the EBV receptor, CD21, was highly conserved. Stable infections of human B cells with recombinant amplicons packaged in rhesus monkey or baboon LCV envelopes were also consistent with a species-restricted block occurring after virus binding and penetration. Transient infections of human B cells with simian LCV resulted in latent LCV EBNA-2 gene expression and activation of cell CD23 gene expression. EBV-immortalized human B cells could be coinfected with baboon LCV, and the simian virus persisted and replicated in human B cells. Thus, several lines of evidence indicate that the species restriction for efficient LCV-induced B-cell immortalization occurs beyond virus binding and penetration. This has important implications for the study of LCV infection in Old World primate models and for human xenotransplantation where simian LCVs may be inadvertently introduced into humans.

1999 ◽  
Vol 49 (2) ◽  
pp. 86-98 ◽  
Jonathan E. Boyson ◽  
Kristen K. Iwanaga ◽  
Julie A. Urvater ◽  
Austin L. Hughes ◽  
Thaddeus G. Golos ◽  

Gene Therapy ◽  
2007 ◽  
Vol 14 (12) ◽  
pp. 939-949 ◽  
J-P Louboutin ◽  
B A S Reyes ◽  
L Agrawal ◽  
E Van Bockstaele ◽  
D S Strayer

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