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Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 151
Qiong Wang ◽  
Qi Zou ◽  
Zhaoji Dai ◽  
Ni Hong ◽  
Guoping Wang ◽  

A hypovirulent SZ-2-3y strain isolated from diseased Paris polyphylla was identified as Botrytis cinerea. Interestingly, SZ-2-3y was coinfected with a mitovirus, two botouliviruses, and a 3074 nt fusarivirus, designated Botrytis cinerea fusarivirus 8 (BcFV8); it shares an 87.2% sequence identity with the previously identified Botrytis cinerea fusarivirus 6 (BcFV6). The full-length 2945 nt genome sequence of the mitovirus, termed Botrytis cinerea mitovirus 10 (BcMV10), shares a 54% sequence identity with Fusarium boothii mitovirus 1 (FbMV1), and clusters with fungus mitoviruses, plant mitoviruses and plant mitochondria; hence BcMV10 is a new Mitoviridae member. The full-length 2759 nt and 2812 nt genome sequences of the other two botouliviruses, named Botrytis cinerea botoulivirus 18 and 19 (BcBoV18 and 19), share a 40% amino acid sequence identity with RNA-dependent RNA polymerase protein (RdRp), and these are new members of the Botoulivirus genus of Botourmiaviridae. Horizontal transmission analysis showed that BcBoV18, BcBoV19 and BcFV8 are not related to hypovirulence, suggesting that BcMV10 may induce hypovirulence. Intriguingly, a partial BcMV10 sequence was detected in cucumber plants inoculated with SZ-2-3y mycelium or pXT1/BcMV10 agrobacterium. In conclusion, we identified a hypovirulent SZ-2-3y fungal strain from P. polyphylla, coinfected with four novel mycoviruses that could serve as potential biocontrol agents. Our findings provide evidence of cross-kingdom mycoviral sequence transmission.

Toxins ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 58
Jonas Krämer ◽  
Tim Lüddecke ◽  
Michael Marner ◽  
Elena Maiworm ◽  
Johanna Eichberg ◽  

Linear cationic venom peptides are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that exert their effects by damaging cell membranes. These peptides can be highly specific, and for some, a significant therapeutic value was proposed, in particular for treatment of bacterial infections. A prolific source of novel AMPs are arthropod venoms, especially those of hitherto neglected groups such as pseudoscorpions. In this study, we describe for the first time pharmacological effects of AMPs discovered in pseudoscorpion venom. We examined the antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and insecticidal activity of full-length Checacin1, a major component of the Chelifer cancroides venom, and three truncated forms of this peptide. The antimicrobial tests revealed a potent inhibitory activity of Checacin1 against several bacteria and fungi, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and even Gram-negative pathogens. All peptides reduced survival rates of aphids, with Checacin1 and the C-terminally truncated Checacin11−21 exhibiting effects comparable to Spinosad, a commercially used pesticide. Cytotoxic effects on mammalian cells were observed mainly for the full-length Checacin1. All tested peptides might be potential candidates for developing lead structures for aphid pest treatment. However, as these peptides were not yet tested on other insects, aphid specificity has not been proven. The N- and C-terminal fragments of Checacin1 are less potent against aphids but exhibit no cytotoxicity on mammalian cells at the tested concentration of 100 µM.

ACS Omega ◽  
2022 ◽  
Manisha Shukla ◽  
Pankaj Chandley ◽  
Suman Tapryal ◽  
Narendra Kumar ◽  
Sulakshana P. Mukherjee ◽  

2022 ◽  
Michael A Schon ◽  
Stefan Lutzmayer ◽  
Falko Hofmann ◽  
Michael D Nodine

Accurate annotation of transcript isoforms is crucial for functional genomics research, but automated methods for reconstructing full-length transcripts from RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data are imprecise. We developed a generalized transcript assembly framework called Bookend that incorporates data from multiple modes of RNA-seq, with a focus on identifying, labeling, and deconvoluting RNA 5′ and 3′ ends. Through end-guided assembly with Bookend we demonstrate that correctly modeling transcript start and end sites is essential for precise transcript assembly. Furthermore, we discover that reads from full-length single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) methods are sparsely end-labeled, and that these ends are sufficient to dramatically improve precision of assembly in single cells. Finally, we show that hybrid assembly across short-read, long-read, and end-capture RNA-seq in the model plant Arabidopsis and meta-assembly of single mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) are both capable of producing tissue-specific end-to-end transcript annotations of comparable or superior quality to existing reference isoforms.

eLife ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Sushila A Shenoy ◽  
Sushuang Zheng ◽  
Wencheng Liu ◽  
Yuanyi Dai ◽  
Yuanxiu Liu ◽  

Here, we report the generation and characterization of a novel Huntington’s disease (HD) mouse model BAC226Q by using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system, expressing full-length human HTT with ~226 CAG-CAA repeats and containing endogenous human HTT promoter and regulatory elements. BAC226Q recapitulated a full-spectrum of age-dependent and progressive HD-like phenotypes without unwanted and erroneous phenotypes. BAC226Q mice developed normally, and gradually exhibited HD-like psychiatric and cognitive phenotypes at 2 months. From 3 to 4 months, BAC226Q mice showed robust progressive motor deficits. At 11 months, BAC226Q mice showed significant reduced life span, gradual weight loss and exhibited neuropathology including significant brain atrophy specific to striatum and cortex, striatal neuronal death, widespread huntingtin inclusions, and reactive pathology. Therefore, the novel BAC226Q mouse accurately recapitulating robust, age-dependent, progressive HD-like phenotypes will be a valuable tool for studying disease mechanisms, identifying biomarkers, and testing gene-targeting therapeutic approaches for HD.

2022 ◽  
Jinming Wu ◽  
Asvin KK Lakkaraju ◽  
Adriano KK Aguzzi ◽  
Jinghui Luo

Prion disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder, in which the cellular prion protein PrPC is converted to a misfolded prion which in turn is hypothesized to permeabilize cellular membranes. The pathways leading to toxicity in prion disease are not yet completely elucidated and whether it also includes formation of membrane pores remains to be answered. Prion protein consists of two domains: a globular domain (GD) and a flexible N-terminus (FT) domain. Although a proximal nine polybasic amino acid (FT(23-31)) sequence of FT is a prerequisite for cellular membrane permeabilization, other functional domain regions may influence FT(23-31) and its permeabilization. By using single-channel electrical recordings, we reveal that FT(23-50) dominates the membrane permeabilization within the full-length mouse PrP (mPrP(23-230)). The other domain of FT(51-110) or C-terminal domain down-regulates the channel activity of FT(23-50) and the full-length mouse PrP (mPrP(23-230)). The addition of prion mimetic antibody, POM1 significantly enhances mPrP(23-230) membrane permeabilization, whereas POM1-Y104A, a POM1 mutant that binds to PrP but cannot elicit toxicity has negligible effect on membrane permeabilization. Additionally, anti-N-terminal antibody POM2 or Cu2+ stabilizes FT domain, thus provoking FT(23-110) channel activity. Furthermore, our setup provides a more direct method without an external fused protein to study the channel activity of truncated PrP in the lipid membranes. We therefore hypothesize that the primary N-terminal residues are essential for membranes permeabilization and other functional segments play a vital role to modulate the pathological effects of PrP-medicated neurotoxicity. This may yield essential insights into molecular mechanisms of prion neurotoxicity to cellular membranes in prion disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Yanjie Li ◽  
Honggang Sun ◽  
Federico Tomasetto ◽  
Jingmin Jiang ◽  
Qifu Luan

The internal cycling of nitrogen (N) storage and consumption in trees is an important physiological mechanism associated with tree growth. Here, we examined the capability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) to quantify the N concentration across tissue types (needle, trunk, branch, and root) without time and cost-consuming. The NIR spectral data of different tissues from slash pine trees were collected, and the N concentration in each tissue was determined using standard analytical method in laboratory. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were performed on a set of training data randomly selected. The full-length spectra and the significant multivariate correlation (sMC) variable selected spectra were used for model calibration. Branch, needle, and trunk PLSR models performed well for the N concentration using both full length and sMC selected NIR spectra. The generic model preformatted a reliable accuracy with R2C and R2CV of 0.62 and 0.66 using the full-length spectra, and 0.61 and 0.65 using sMC-selected spectra, respectively. Individual tissue models did not perform well when being used in other tissues. Five significantly important regions, i.e., 1480, 1650, 1744, 2170, and 2390 nm, were found highly related to the N content in plant tissues. This study evaluates a rapid and efficient method for the estimation of N content in different tissues that can help to serve as a tool for tree N storage and recompilation study.

2022 ◽  
Justin Galardi ◽  
Victoria N Bela ◽  
Nazish Jeffery ◽  
Xueyang He ◽  
Eliezra Glasser ◽  

In the early stages of spliceosome assembly, the 3' splice site is recognized by sequential complexes of U2AF2 with SF1 followed by the SF3B1 subunit of the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle. The U2AF2 - SF1 interface comprises a U2AF homology motif (UHM) of U2AF2 and a well-characterized U2AF ligand motif (ULM)/coiled coil region of SF1. However, the structure of the U2AF2 - SF3B1 interface and its importance for pre-mRNA splicing is unknown. To address this knowledge gap, we determined the crystal structure of the U2AF2 UHM bound to a SF3B1 ULM site at 1.8 Å resolution. The trajectory of the SF3B1 ULM across the U2AF2 UHM surface differed from prior UHM/ULM structures. This distinctive structure is expected to modulate the orientations of the full-length proteins. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we established similar binding affinities of a minimal U2AF2 UHM - SF3B1 ULM complex and a nearly full-length U2AF2 protein binding the N-terminal SF3B1 region, with or without an auxiliary SF3B6 subunit. We showed that key residues at the U2AF2 UHM - SF3B1 ULM interface are required for high affinity association and co-immunoprecipitation of the splicing factors. Moreover, disrupting the U2AF2 - SF3B1 interface altered splicing of representative human transcripts. Further analysis of these transcripts and genome-wide data sets indicated that the subset of splice sites co-regulated by U2AF2 and SF3B1 are largely distinct from those co-regulated by U2AF2 and SF1. Altogether, these findings support distinct structural and functional roles for the sequential SF1 and SF3B1 complexes with U2AF2 during the pre-mRNA splicing process.

2022 ◽  
Clemence Claussin ◽  
Jacob Vazquez ◽  
Iestyn Whitehouse

Fundamental aspects of DNA replication, such as the anatomy of replication stall sites, how replisomes are influenced by gene transcription and whether the progression of sister replisomes is coordinated are poorly understood. Available techniques do not allow the precise mapping of the positions of individual replisomes on chromatin. We have developed a new method called Replicon-seq that entails the excision of full-length replicons by controlled nuclease cleavage at replication forks. Replicons are sequenced using Nanopore, which provides a single molecule readout of long DNA molecules. Using Replicon-seq, we have investigated replisome movement along chromatin. We found that sister replisomes progress with remarkable consistency from the origin of replication but function autonomously. Replication forks that encounter obstacles pause for a short duration but rapidly resume synthesis. The helicase Rrm3 plays a critical role both in mitigating the effect of protein barriers and facilitating efficient termination. Replicon-seq provides an unprecedented means of defining replisome movement across the genome.

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