social factors
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2022 ◽  
Julie De Groot

How did citizens in Bruges create a home? What did an ordinary domestic interior look like in the sixteenth century? And more importantly: how does one study the domestic culture of bygone times by analysing documents such as probate inventories? These questions seem straightforward, yet few endeavours are more challenging than reconstructing a sixteenth-century domestic reality from written sources. This book takes full advantage of the inventory and convincingly frames household objects in their original context of use. Meticulously connecting objects, people and domestic spaces, the book introduces the reader to the rich material world of Bruges citizens in the Renaissance, their sensory engagement, their religious practice, the role of women, and other social factors. By weaving insights from material culture studies with urban history, At Home in Renaissance Bruges offers an appealing and holistic mixture of in-depth socio-economic, cultural and material analysis. In its approach the book goes beyond heavy-handed theories and stereotypes about the exquisite taste of aristocratic elites, focusing instead on the domestic materiality of Bruges’ middling groups. Evocatively illustrated with contemporary paintings from Bruges and beyond, this monograph shows a nuanced picture of domestic materiality in a remarkable European city.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 065-071
Gayane Kirakosyan ◽  
Alina Frolova

Psychosis is understood as the brightest manifestations of mental illness, in which the patient's mental activity does not correspond to the surrounding reality, the reflection of the real world in consciousness is sharply distorted, which manifests itself in behavioral disorders, abnormal pathological symptoms and syndromes. Psychosis is a combination of biological (genetic, neuroanatomical, neurophysiological), psychological and social factors in various proportions. Psychoses are classified according to their origin (etiology) and reasons (pathogenetic mechanisms of development) into endogenous (including endogenous psychoses include schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, some psychotic forms of affective disorders), organic, somatogenic, psychogenic (reactive, situational), intoxication, withdrawal and post-withdrawal. Most often, psychoses develop in the framework of so-called endogenous disorder. The concepts of psychosis and schizophrenia are often equated, which is incorrect as psychotic disorders can occur in a number of mental illnesses: Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia, chronic alcoholism, drug addiction, epilepsy, intellectual disabilities, etc. Other types of psychosis, such as infectious, somatic and intoxication psychoses are quite often find among patients in non-psychiatric practices. This review article is a good educational material for medical and psychological practitioners whose goal is to improve knowledge and diagnostic processes of psychosis and its related disorders.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Peter Bai James ◽  
Jon Wardle ◽  
Razak M. Gyasi ◽  
Amie Steel ◽  
Jon Adams ◽  

Abstract Background Evidence of how social factors affect the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors is limited. Our study explores the association between socio-demographic, health-related and psycho-social (stigma) factors and EVD survivors' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Sierra Leone. Methods We conducted a nationwide cross-sectional study among 358 EVD survivors between January and August 2018. We used a multistage sampling method to recruit EVD survivors, and the RAND 36-Item Health Survey item was used to assess the HRQoL. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression. Results When comparing by each dimension in relation to their respective summary scores, role limitation physical [0.00 (50.00)] and role limitation emotional [0.00 (33.33)] were the most affected physical health and mental health domains among EVD survivors respectively. EVD survivors who were older (β = − 3.90, 95% CI − 6.47 to − 1.32, p = 0.003), had no formal education (β = − 2.80, 95% CI − 5.16 to − 0.43, p = 0.021), experienced a unit increase in the number of post-Ebola symptoms (β = − 1.08, 95% CI − 1.74 to − 0.43, p < 0.001) and experienced a unit increase in enacted stigma (β = − 2.61, 95% CI − 4.02 to − 1.20, p < 0.001) were more likely to report a decreased level of physical health. EVD survivors who experienced a unit increase in the time spent in the Ebola treatment centre (β = − 0.60, 95% CI − 0.103 to − 0.18, p = 0.006) and those who experienced a unit increase in enacted Stigma were more likely to report decreased levels of mental health (β = − 1.50, 95% CI − 2.67 to − 0.33, p = 0.012). Conclusion Sociodemographic, health-related, and psycho-social factors were significantly associated with decrease levels of HRQoL. Our findings improve our understanding of the factors that might influence the HRQoL and suggest the need for EVD survivors to be provided with a comprehensive healthcare package that caters for their physical and mental health needs.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Ratan Kumar ◽  
Vibhava Srivastava

Purpose The purpose of this study is to extend and contribute to the evolving phenomenon of social media usage by business-to-business (B2B) salespersons. It draws on the interactional psychology model and extended technology acceptance model to explore the said phenomenon. Design/methodology/approach A survey-based quantitative study was carried out. Responses were gathered through a self-administered and structured questionnaire, from 218 B2B salespersons who were pooled in using purposive and snowball sampling. The final data set was subjected to partial least squares-based structural equation modelling using WarpPLS 7.0. Findings This study found that individual factors, namely, salesperson’s social media competence and sales capabilities; organizational factors, namely, organizational commitment and organizational competence; and social factors, namely, image, result demonstrability and subjective norms, contribute positively and significantly towards social media usage by B2B salespeople. The study also found that the impact of individual factors on intention to use social media was partially mediated by its perceived usefulness, while in the case of organizational and social factors, the impact was fully mediated by its perceived ease of use. Research limitations/implications This study provides a valuable addition to the existing literature on sales and social media; however, the contextualization cannot be ignored. Practical implications This study enables firms to understand various factors affecting salespeople’ perception of social media and to make them appreciate its usage in improving sales performance and customer satisfaction. Originality/value It is the first study that models the factors of salespeople’s usage of social media in their job at three levels, namely, individual, organizational and social, and establishes the link between B2B salespersons’ perceived usefulness of social media, sales capabilities, social media competence and intention to use social media.

2022 ◽  
Elena N. Kharenko ◽  
Ekaterina S. Belomyttseva

Elderly people frequently experience a decrease in body weight, associated primarily with a decrease in protein intake, for a variety of reasons, including social factors. In this regard, the consumption of liquid food rations enriched with watersoluble protein hydrolysates is the simplest solution to the problem of providing people with sufficient protein intake. Development of methods for the manufacture of fish and cereal-based products is promising due to the possibility to simulate the composition of a certain nutritional compound for functional consumption by various population groups. Our task was to substantiate the parameters and components for creating a product for gerodietic use. The development of the technology included the following stages: preparation of ingredients, such as cereal filler, by-products from herring cutting, natural food coloring, vegetable oil, table salt and water; their mixing; heat treatment; cooling and packaging. The finished product has a light orange color, characteristic of natural pollock roe, and a pleasant fishy smell; the ”fish eggs” are easily separated from each other. New types of gerodietic products make it possible to increase the nutritional and biological value of the diet of the elderly, as well as to inhibit the development of age-related pathological changes. Keywords: Secondary Raw Materials, Functional Foods, Gerodietic Food Products

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Charles Heriot-Maitland ◽  
Til Wykes ◽  
Emmanuelle Peters

The pathways from trauma—via dissociation—to psychosis have been thoroughly tested and evidenced, but what has received less attention has been the social pathways—via dissociation—to psychosis. Often social factors are more commonly linked to other influences, e.g., to appraisals and the creation of negative schema in cognitive models, or to unsupportive caregiving experiences where there is high “expressed emotion.” However, evidence is now emerging that negative social rank experiences, such as being excluded or shamed, may themselves have dissociative properties, which poses intriguing questions as to how trauma pathways and social pathways might interact. This article reviews the state of knowledge in trauma and social pathways to psychosis and then considers the potential mechanisms and the relationships between them, specifically (i) dissociation, (ii) attachment, and (iii) social rank. Recommendations are suggested for future modeling and testing of three-way interactions (dissociation × attachment × social rank) in the pathway from trauma to psychosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Sean M. O’Toole ◽  
Rebekah J. Walker ◽  
Emma Garacci ◽  
Aprill Z. Dawson ◽  
Jennifer A. Campbell ◽  

Abstract Background The aim of the study was to examine the explanatory role of sociodemographic, clinical, behavioral, and social factors on racial/ethnic differences in cognitive decline among adults with diabetes. Methods Adults aged 50+ years with diabetes from the Health and Retirement Survey were assessed for cognitive function (normal, mild cognitive impairment [MCI], and dementia). Generalized estimating equation (GEE) logistic regression models were used to account for repeating measures over time. Models were adjusted for sociodemographic (gender, age, education, household income and assets), behavioral (smoking), clinical (ie. comorbidities, body mass index), and social (social support, loneliness, social participation, perceived constraints and perceived mastery on personal control) factors. Results Unadjusted models showed non-Hispanic Blacks (NHB) and Hispanics were significantly more likely to progress from normal cognition to dementia (NHB OR: 2.99, 95%CI 2.35–3.81; Hispanic OR: 3.55, 95%CI 2.77–4.56), and normal cognition to MCI (NHB OR = 2.45, 95%CI 2.14–2.82; Hispanic OR = 2.49, 95%CI 2.13–2.90) compared to non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). Unadjusted models for the transition from mild cognitive decline to dementia showed Hispanics were more likely than NHW to progress (OR = 1.43, 95%CI 1.11–1.84). After adjusting for sociodemographic, clinical/behavioral, and social measures, NHB were 3.75 times more likely (95%CI 2.52–5.56) than NHW to reach dementia from normal cognition. NHB were 2.87 times more likely (95%CI 2.37–3.48) than NHW to reach MCI from normal. Hispanics were 1.72 times more likely (95%CI 1.17–2.52) than NHW to reach dementia from MCI. Conclusion Clinical/behavioral and social factors did not explain racial/ethnic disparities. Racial/ethnic disparities are less evident from MCI to dementia, emphasizing preventative measures/interventions before cognitive impairment onset are important.

2022 ◽  
Vol In Press (In Press) ◽  
Arash Mani ◽  
Mehdi Pasalar ◽  
Mahsa Kamali ◽  
Hossein Molavi Vardanjani ◽  
AliReza Estedlal ◽  

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a life-threatening disease that has spread globally and received international concern. Iran is one of the countries severely affected by this pandemic, implementing social lockdown and restrictive strategies. According to Persian medicine, restrictions like quarantine have psychological and social consequences. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sleep quality and anger behaviors in Iran and compare it with Persian medicine viewpoints. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 739 participants were interviewed in April 2020 in Shiraz, Iran. The questionnaire included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Multidimensional Anger Inventory (MAI), and items on demographics, temperament, and the quarantine situation social factors. All participants completed the questionnaires willingly and were ensured of data confidentiality. Results: We found that 58.3% of the participants had low sleep quality. Females showed higher scores on anger and its related aspects (P < 0.05). In addition, people with lower education and income levels revealed higher anger scores (P < 0.05). Moreover, the mean scores of anger and its related factors were higher in participants with low sleep quality, higher sleep latency, daytime dysfunction, and experience of using sleep medications (P < 0.05). Also, after adjustment for demographics and other social factors, the mean scores of anger and all of its aspects were higher in those with a sleep disorder, use of sleep medications, and daytime dysfunction (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In conclusion, our findings illustrated that various factors, including low sleep quality, are associated with anger in individuals with the experience of home quarantine during the COVID-19 outbreak. The outcome is compatible with Persian medicine evidence.

Markus Koppenborg ◽  
Katrin B. Klingsieck

AbstractResearch on procrastination covers a variety of individual factors (e.g., conscientiousness) and this focus is reflected in interventions against procrastination. Less emphasis is put on situational and social factors that may help students reduce procrastination, such as social interdependence. Therefore, this study investigates the relationship between interdependence with academic procrastination and affective variables. Two vignette studies with student samples (N1 = 320, N2 = 193) were conducted and data was analyzed with regression analyses and analyses of covariance. Results of both studies show lower state procrastination in group work with interdependence compared to individual work, especially in participants with high trait procrastination. This difference is more pronounced when interdependence is accompanied by an active commitment to finish the task on time. Further, interdependent group work is related to increased positive affect and decreased negative affect. The results demonstrate the relevance of situational and social factors for academic procrastination, and point toward new approaches for intervention.

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