gene delivery
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Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 165
Ellen S. Hauck ◽  
James G. Hecker

Appropriate gene delivery systems are essential for successful gene therapy in clinical medicine. Lipid-mediated nucleic acid delivery is an alternative to viral vector-mediated gene delivery and has the following advantages. Lipid-mediated delivery of DNA or mRNA is usually more rapid than viral-mediated delivery, offers a larger payload, and has a nearly zero risk of incorporation. Lipid-mediated delivery of DNA or RNA is therefore preferable to viral DNA delivery in those clinical applications that do not require long-term expression for chronic conditions. Delivery of RNA may be preferable to non-viral DNA delivery in some clinical applications, since transit across the nuclear membrane is not necessary, and onset of expression with RNA is therefore even faster than with DNA, although both are faster than most viral vectors. Delivery of RNA to target organ(s) has previously been challenging due to RNA’s rapid degradation in biological systems, but cationic lipids complexed with RNA, as well as lipid nanoparticles (LNPs), have allowed for delivery and expression of the complexed RNA both in vitro and in vivo. This review will focus on the non-viral lipid-mediated delivery of RNAs, including mRNA, siRNA, shRNA, and microRNA, to the central nervous system (CNS), an organ with at least two unique challenges. The CNS contains a large number of slowly dividing or non-dividing cell types and is protected by the blood brain barrier (BBB). In non-dividing cells, RNA-lipid complexes demonstrated increased transfection efficiency relative to DNA transfection. The efficiency, timing of the onset, and duration of expression after transfection may determine which nucleic acid is best for which proposed therapy. Expression can be seen as soon as 1 h after RNA delivery, but duration of expression has been limited to 5–7 h. In contrast, transfection with a DNA lipoplex demonstrates protein expression within 5 h and lasts as long as several weeks after transfection.

2022 ◽  
Miguel R Chuapoco ◽  
Nicholas Flytzanis ◽  
Nick Goeden ◽  
J Christopher Octeau ◽  
Kristina M Roxas ◽  

Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) can enable robust and safe gene delivery to the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). While the scientific community has developed numerous neurotropic AAV variants for systemic gene-transfer to the rodent brain, there are few AAVs that efficiently access the CNS of higher order primates. We describe here AAV.CAP-Mac, an engineered AAV variant that enables systemic, brain-wide gene delivery in infants of two Old World primate species--the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and the green monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus). We identified CAP-Mac using a multi-species selection strategy, initially screening our library in the adult common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and narrowing our pool of test-variants for another round of selection in infant macaques. In individual characterization, CAP-Mac robustly transduces human neurons in vitro and Old World primate neurons in vivo, where it targets all lobes of cortex, the cerebellum, and multiple subcortical regions of disease relevance. We use CAP-Mac for Brainbow-like multicolor labeling of macaque neurons throughout the brain, enabling morphological reconstruction of both medium spiny neurons and cortical pyramidal cells. Because of its broad distribution throughout the brain and high neuronal efficiency in infant Old World primates compared to AAV9, CAP-Mac shows promise for researchers and clinicians alike to unlock novel, noninvasive access to the brain for efficient gene transfer.

Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 102
Xiaohong Liu ◽  
Hui Yin ◽  
Xia Song ◽  
Zhongxing Zhang ◽  
Jun Li

Lignin is a natural renewable biomass resource with great potential for applications, while its development into high value-added molecules or materials is rare. The development of biomass lignin as potential nonviral gene delivery carriers was initiated by our group through the “grafting-from” approach. Firstly, the lignin was modified into macroinitiator using 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide. Then cationic polymer chains of poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (PDMAEMA) were grown from the lignin backbone using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) to yield lignin-PDMAEMA graft copolymers (LPs) with branched structure. To gain a deep understanding of the relationship between the nonviral gene transfection efficiency of such copolymers and their structural and compositional factors, herein eight lignin-based macroinitiators with different modification degrees (MDs, from 3.0 to 100%) were synthesized. Initiated by them, a series of 20 LPs were synthesized with varied structural factors such as grafting degree (GD, which is equal to MD, determining the cationic chain number per lignin macromolecule), cationic chain length (represented by number of repeating DMAEMA units per grafted arm or degree of polymerization, DP) as well as the content of N element (N%) which is due to the grafted PDMAEMA chains and proportional to molecular weight of the LPs. The in vitro gene transfection capability of these graft copolymers was evaluated by luciferase assay in HeLa, COS7 and MDA-MB-231cell lines. Generally, the copolymers LP-12 (N% = 7.28, MD = 36.7%, DP = 13.6) and LP-14 (N% = 6.05, MD = 44.4%, DP = 5.5) showed good gene transfection capabilities in the cell lines tested. Overall, the performance of LP-12 was the best among all the LPs in the three cell lines at the N/P ratios from 10 to 30, which was usually several times higher than PEI standard. However, in MDA-MB-231 at N/P ratio of 30, LP-14 showed the best gene transfection performance among all the LPs. Its gene transfection efficiency was ca. 11 times higher than PEI standard at this N/P ratio. This work demonstrated that, although the content of N element (N%) which is due to the grafted PDMAEMA chains primarily determines the gene transfection efficiency of the LPs, it is not the only factor in explaining the performance of such copolymers with the branched structure. Structural factors of these copolymers such as grafting degree and cationic chain length could have a profound effect on the copolymer performance on gene transfection efficiency. Through carefully adjusting these factors, the gene transfection efficiency of the LPs could be modulated and optimized for different cell lines, which could make this new type of biomass-based biomaterial an attractive choice for various gene delivery applications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Bin Li ◽  
Fei Wang ◽  
Fangqiong Hu ◽  
Tao Ding ◽  
Ping Huang ◽  

AbstractSustained and controllable local gene therapy is a potential method for treating osteoarthritis (OA) through the delivery of therapeutic microRNAs (miRNAs) to targeted cells. However, direct injection of crude miRNAs for local gene therapy is limited due to its inadequate transfection efficiency, easy inactivation, and short half-life. Here, a multifunctional gene vector, arginine, histidine, and phenylalanine-modified generation 5 polyamidoamine (named G5-AHP), was employed to form G5-AHP/miR-140 nanoparticles by forming a complex with microRNA-140 (miR-140). Then, the nanoparticles were entrapped in hydrogel microspheres (MSs) to construct a “nano-micron” combined gene hydrogel to alleviate the degradation of articular cartilage. Monodisperse gelatin methacryloyl hydrogel MSs were produced under ultraviolet light using one-step innovative microfluidic technology. Evenly dispersed MSs showed better injectability in sustainable and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-responsive degradation methods for local gene delivery. The G5-AHP/miR-140 nanoparticles released from the MSs exhibited high gene transfection efficacy and long-term bioactivity, facilitated endocytosis, and thus maintained the metabolic balance of cartilage matrix by promoting the expression of type II collagen and inhibiting the expression of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs-5 and MMP13 in chondrocytes. After injection of the “nano-micron” combined gene hydrogel into the articular cavity of the OA model, the gene hydrogel increased G5-AHP/miR-140 nanoparticle retention, prevented articular cartilage degeneration, and reduced osteophyte formation in a surgically induced mouse model of OA. The present study provides a novel cell-free approach to alleviate the progression of OA that shows potential for locally injected gene delivery systems.

Shuxian Song ◽  
Meghan J. Lyle ◽  
Misty L. Noble-Vranish ◽  
Dominic M. Min-Tran ◽  
James Harrang ◽  

Yao-Hua Liu ◽  
Yu Liu

Nucleic acids condensation and controlled release remain significant challenges of gene therapy in chemical biology and nanotechnology fields. In this work, we have reported a polysaccharide supramolecular assembly constructed by...

Nanoscale ◽  
2022 ◽  
Kai Jiang ◽  
Di Zhao ◽  
Rui Ye ◽  
Xinlong Liu ◽  
Chao Gao ◽  

Spherical nucleic acid (SNA), as a good gene delivery system, has a good application prospect for transdermal administration in skin disorders treatment. However, most of traditional SNA core materials are...

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