Password hygiene plays an essential part in securing systems protected with single-factor authentication. A significant fraction of security incidents happen due to weak or reused passwords. The reasons behind differences in security vulnerable behaviour between various user groups remains an active research topic. The paper aims to identify the impact of age and gender on password strength using a large password dataset. We recovered previously hashed passwords of 102,120 users from a leaked customer database of a car-sharing company. Although the measured effect size was small, males significantly had stronger passwords than females for all age groups. Males aged 26–45 were also significantly different from all other groups, and password complexity decreased with age for both genders equally. Overall, very weak password hygiene was observed, 72% of users based their password on a word or used a simple sequence of digits, and passwords of over 39% of users were found in word lists of previous leaks.
The development of resistant mungbean varieties is one of the most efficient strategies to control major diseases such as Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) and powdery mildew (PM). The objectives of this study were to pyramid a CLS resistance gene and two PM resistance genes from the donor parent D2 into a susceptible variety KING through marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) and to evaluate their agronomic traits and disease resistance under field conditions. Five markers linked to the resistance genes were used for foreground selection, while two marker sets [Set A containing 15 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) and expressed sequence tag-SSR (EST-SSR) markers and Set B containing 34 polymorphic inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) loci] were also used for background selection. Two pyramided backcross (BC) lines, namely H3 and H4, were homozygous at all five marker loci when confirmed in BC4F4 and BC4F5 generations. Their recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery ranged from 96.4 to 100.0%, depending on the marker sets. During field evaluation, a moderate to high level of CLS and PM resistance was observed in both BC lines compared to the susceptible recurrent parent KING. One of these BC lines (H3) had all agronomic traits similar or superior to the recurrent parent KING at all environments, and had a higher yield than KING (18.0–32.0%) under CLS and PM outbreaks. This line can be developed into a new resistant mungbean variety in Thailand in the future. These results substantiate the usefulness of MABC for transferring multiple resistance genes into an elite variety.
AbstractPlatostoma palustre (Blume) A.J.Paton is an annual herbaceous persistent plant of the Labiatae family. However, there is a lack of genomic data for this plant, which severely restricts its genetic improvement. In this study, we performed genome survey sequencing of P. palustre and developed simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers based on the resulting sequence. K-mer analysis revealed that the assembled genome size was approximately 1.21 Gb. A total of 15,498 SSR motifs were identified and characterized in this study; among them, dinucleotide, and hexanucleotide repeats had the highest and lowest, respectively. Among the dinucleotide repeat motifs, AT/TA repeat motifs were the most abundant, and GC/CG repeat motifs were rather rare, accounting for 44.28% and 0.63%, respectively. Genetic similarity coefficient analysis by the UPMGA methods clustered 12 clones, of P. palustre and related species into two subgroups. These results provide helpful information for further research on P. palustre resources and variety improvements.
Angelica heterocarpa (Apiaceae) is a wild endemic French species with special conservation interest in the European Union. It belongs to Angelica complex genus which is widespread throughout the north temperate zone, and is sympatric with other congeneric species. The objective of this work is to develop and characterize microsatellite markers as a new tool for understanding the ecology and evolution of Angelica species complex.
We identified simple sequence repeat (SSR) regions in a microsatellite‐enriched library from A. heterocarpa and A. sylvestris. All 16 selected SSR regions were found to amplify in these species and were highly polymorphic. Marker transferability was validated in A. razulii and A. archangelica. These markers will help us to better understand the evolutionary dynamic between rare endemics and widespread sister species, and be useful for conservation of the endemic species. Moreover, they can provide new tools for studying the numerous traditional medicinal herbs of the Angelica genus.