tandem repeats
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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Zhongzi Wu ◽  
Huanfa Gong ◽  
Zhimin Zhou ◽  
Tao Jiang ◽  
Ziqi Lin ◽  

Abstract Background Short tandem repeats (STRs) were recently found to have significant impacts on gene expression and diseases in humans, but their roles on gene expression and complex traits in pigs remain unexplored. This study investigates the effects of STRs on gene expression in liver tissues based on the whole-genome sequences and RNA-Seq data of a discovery cohort of 260 F6 individuals and a validation population of 296 F7 individuals from a heterogeneous population generated from crosses among eight pig breeds. Results We identified 5203 and 5868 significantly expression STRs (eSTRs, FDR < 1%) in the F6 and F7 populations, respectively, most of which could be reciprocally validated (π1 = 0.92). The eSTRs explained 27.5% of the cis-heritability of gene expression traits on average. We further identified 235 and 298 fine-mapped STRs through the Bayesian fine-mapping approach in the F6 and F7 pigs, respectively, which were significantly enriched in intron, ATAC peak, compartment A and H3K4me3 regions. We identified 20 fine-mapped STRs located in 100 kb windows upstream and downstream of published complex trait-associated SNPs, which colocalized with epigenetic markers such as H3K27ac and ATAC peaks. These included eSTR of the CLPB, PGLS, PSMD6 and DHDH genes, which are linked with genome-wide association study (GWAS) SNPs for blood-related traits, leg conformation, growth-related traits, and meat quality traits, respectively. Conclusions This study provides insights into the effects of STRs on gene expression traits. The identified eSTRs are valuable resources for prioritizing causal STRs for complex traits in pigs.

2022 ◽  
Terri D. Bryson ◽  
Pablo De Ioannes ◽  
Marco Igor Valencia-Sanchez ◽  
Jorja G Henikoff ◽  
Paul B. Talbert ◽  

The doublet histones of Marseillevirus are distantly related to the four eukaryotic core histones and wrap DNA to form remarkably similar nucleosomes. By releasing Marseillevirus chromatin from virions into solution and performing genome-wide nuclease digestion and chemical cleavage assays, we find that the higher-order organization of Marseillevirus chromatin differs greatly from that of eukaryotes. Marseillevirus nucleosomes fully protect DNA within virions, without linker DNA or phasing along genes. Likewise, we observe that most nucleosomes reconstituted onto 3-copy tandem repeats of a nucleosome positioning sequence are tightly packed and fully wrapped. We also document repeat generation and instability during viral passage in amoeboid culture. Dense promiscuous packing of fully wrapped nucleosomes rather than 'beads-on-a-string' with genic punctuation suggests a viral genome protection function for doublet histones.

2022 ◽  
Shruthy Priya Prakash ◽  
Vaidheki Chandrasekar ◽  
Selvi Subramanian ◽  
Rahamatthunnisha Ummar

Banana being a major food crop all around the world, attracts various research interests in crop improvement. In banana, complete genome sequences of Musa accuminata and Musa balbisiana are available. However, the mitochondrial genome is not sequenced or assembled. Mitochondrial (mt) genes play an important role in flower and seed development and in Cytoplasmic Male Sterility. Unraveling banana mt genome architecture will be a foundation for understanding inheritance of traits and their evolution. In this study, the complete banana mt genome is assembled from the whole genome sequence data of the Musa acuminata subsp. malaccensis DH-Pahang. The mt genome sequence acquired by this approach was 409574 bp and it contains, 54 genes coding for 25 respiratory complex proteins 15 ribosomal proteins, 12 tRNA genes and two ribosomal RNA gene. Except atpB, rps11 and rps19 other genes are in multiple copies. The copy number is 12 in tRNA genes. In addition, nearly 25% tandem repeats are also present in it. These mt proteins are identical to the mt proteins present in the other members of AA genome and share 98% sequence similarity with M. balbisiana. The C to U RNA editing is profoundly higher (87 vs 13%) in transcripts of M. balbisiana (BB) compared to M. accuminata (AA). The banana AA mitochondrial genome is tightly packed with 233 genes, with less rearrangements and just 5.3% chloroplast DNA in it. The maintenance of high copy number of functional mt genes suggest that they have a crucial role in the evolution of banana.

Mycorrhiza ◽  
2022 ◽  
Carolyn J. Schultz ◽  
Yue Wu ◽  
Ute Baumann

AbstractDiversity in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) contributes to biodiversity and resilience in natural environments and healthy agricultural systems. Functional complementarity exists among species of AMF in symbiosis with their plant hosts, but the molecular basis of this is not known. We hypothesise this is in part due to the difficulties that current sequence assembly methodologies have assembling sequences for intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) due to their low sequence complexity. IDPs are potential candidates for functional complementarity because they often exist as extended (non-globular) proteins providing additional amino acids for molecular interactions. Rhizophagus irregularis arabinogalactan-protein-like proteins (AGLs) are small secreted IDPs with no known orthologues in AMF or other fungi. We developed a targeted bioinformatics approach to identify highly variable AGLs/IDPs in RNA-sequence datasets. The approach includes a modified multiple k-mer assembly approach (Oases) to identify candidate sequences, followed by targeted sequence capture and assembly (mirabait-mira). All AMF species analysed, including the ancestral family Paraglomeraceae, have small families of proteins rich in disorder promoting amino acids such as proline and glycine, or glycine and asparagine. Glycine- and asparagine-rich proteins also were found in Geosiphon pyriformis (an obligate symbiont of a cyanobacterium), from the same subphylum (Glomeromycotina) as AMF. The sequence diversity of AGLs likely translates to functional diversity, based on predicted physical properties of tandem repeats (elastic, amyloid, or interchangeable) and their broad pI ranges. We envisage that AGLs/IDPs could contribute to functional complementarity in AMF through processes such as self-recognition, retention of nutrients, soil stability, and water movement.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Hongqiang Lou ◽  
Xusheng Li ◽  
Xiusheng Sheng ◽  
Shuiqin Fang ◽  
Shaoye Wan ◽  

Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is one of the major pathogens contributing to the enteritis in humans. Infection can lead to numerous complications, including but not limited to Guillain-Barre syndrome, reactive arthritis, and Reiter’s syndrome. Over the past two decades, joint efforts have been made toward developing a proper strategy of limiting the transmission of C. jejuni to humans. Nevertheless, except for biosecurity measures, no available vaccine has been developed so far. Judging from the research findings, Omp18, AhpC outer membrane protein, and FlgH flagellin subunits of C. jejuni could be adopted as surface protein antigens of C. jejuni for screening dominant epitope thanks to their strong antigenicity, expression of varying strains, and conservative sequence. In this study, bioinformatics technology was adopted to analyze the T-B antigenic epitopes of Omp18, AhpC, and FlgH in C. jejuni strain NCTC11168. Both ELISA and Western Blot methods were adopted to screen the dominant T-B combined epitope. GGS (GGCGGTAGC) sequence was adopted to connect the dominant T-B combined epitope peptides and to construct the prokaryotic expression system of tandem repeats of antigenic epitope peptides. The mouse infection model was adopted to assess the immunoprotective effect imposed by the trivalent T-B combined with antigen epitope peptide based on Omp18/AhpC/FlgH. In this study, a tandem epitope AhpC-2/Omp18-1/FlgH-1 was developed, which was composed of three epitopes and could effectively enhance the stability and antigenicity of the epitope while preserving its structure. The immunization of BALB/c mice with a tandem epitope could induce protective immunity accompanied by the generation of IgG2a antibody response through the in vitro synthesis of IFN-γ cytokines. Judging from the results of immune protection experiments, the colonization of C. jejuni declined to a significant extent, and it was expected that AhpC-2/Omp18-1/FlgH-1 could be adopted as a candidate antigen for genetic engineering vaccine of C. jejuni MAP.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Haoliang Fan ◽  
Yitong He ◽  
Shuanglin Li ◽  
Qiqian Xie ◽  
Fenfen Wang ◽  

Insertion/deletion (InDel) polymorphisms, combined desirable characteristics of both short tandem repeats (STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), are considerable potential in the fields of forensic practices and population genetics. However, most commercial InDel kits designed based on non-Asians limited extensive forensic applications in East Asian (EAS) populations. Recently, a novel 6-dye direct and multiplex PCR-CE-based typing system was designed on the basis of genome-wide EAS population data, which could amplify 60 molecular genetic markers, consisting of 57 autosomal InDels (A-InDels), 2 Y-chromosomal InDels (Y-InDels), and Amelogenin in a single PCR reaction and detect by capillary electrophoresis, simultaneously. In the present study, the DNA profiles of 279 unrelated individuals from the Hainan Li group were generated by the novel typing system. In addition, we collected two A-InDel sets to evaluate the forensic performances of the novel system in the 1,000 Genomes Project (1KG) populations and Hainan Li group. For the Universal A-InDel set (UAIS, containing 44 A-InDels) the cumulative power of discrimination (CPD) ranged from 1–1.03 × 10–14 to 1–1.27 × 10–18, and the cumulative power of exclusion (CPE) varied from 0.993634 to 0.999908 in the 1KG populations. For the East Asia-based A-InDel set (EAIS, containing 57 A-InDels) the CPD spanned from 1–1.32 × 10–23 to 1–9.42 × 10–24, and the CPE ranged from 0.999965 to 0.999997. In the Hainan Li group, the average heterozygote (He) was 0.4666 (0.2366–0.5448), and the polymorphism information content (PIC) spanned from 0.2116 to 0.3750 (mean PIC: 0.3563 ± 0.0291). In total, the CPD and CPE of 57 A-InDels were 1–1.32 × 10–23 and 0.999965, respectively. Consequently, the novel 6-dye direct and multiplex PCR-CE-based typing system could be considered as the reliable and robust tool for human identification and intercontinental population differentiation, and supplied additional information for kinship analysis in the 1KG populations and Hainan Li group.

PLoS Genetics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1009604
Jiru Han ◽  
Jacob E. Munro ◽  
Anthony Kocoski ◽  
Alyssa E. Barry ◽  
Melanie Bahlo

Short tandem repeats (STRs) are highly informative genetic markers that have been used extensively in population genetics analysis. They are an important source of genetic diversity and can also have functional impact. Despite the availability of bioinformatic methods that permit large-scale genome-wide genotyping of STRs from whole genome sequencing data, they have not previously been applied to sequencing data from large collections of malaria parasite field samples. Here, we have genotyped STRs using HipSTR in more than 3,000 Plasmodium falciparum and 174 Plasmodium vivax published whole-genome sequence data from samples collected across the globe. High levels of noise and variability in the resultant callset necessitated the development of a novel method for quality control of STR genotype calls. A set of high-quality STR loci (6,768 from P. falciparum and 3,496 from P. vivax) were used to study Plasmodium genetic diversity, population structures and genomic signatures of selection and these were compared to genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping data. In addition, the genome-wide information about genetic variation and other characteristics of STRs in P. falciparum and P. vivax have been available in an interactive web-based R Shiny application PlasmoSTR (https://github.com/bahlolab/PlasmoSTR).

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Elmira Khussainova ◽  
Ilya Kisselev ◽  
Olzhas Iksan ◽  
Bakhytzhan Bekmanov ◽  
Liliya Skvortsova ◽  

Ethnogenesis of Kazakhs took place in Central Asia, a region of high genetic and cultural diversity. Even though archaeological and historical studies have shed some light on the formation of modern Kazakhs, the process of establishment of hierarchical socioeconomic structure in the Steppe remains contentious. In this study, we analyzed haplotype variation at 15 Y-chromosomal short-tandem-repeats obtained from 1171 individuals from 24 tribes representing the three socio-territorial subdivisions (Senior, Middle and Junior zhuz) in Kazakhstan to comprehensively characterize the patrilineal genetic architecture of the Kazakh Steppe. In total, 577 distinct haplotypes were identified belonging to one of 20 haplogroups; 16 predominant haplogroups were confirmed by SNP-genotyping. The haplogroup distribution was skewed towards C2-M217, present in all tribes at a global frequency of 51.9%. Despite signatures of spatial differences in haplotype frequencies, a Mantel test failed to detect a statistically significant correlation between genetic and geographic distance between individuals. An analysis of molecular variance found that ∼8.9% of the genetic variance among individuals was attributable to differences among zhuzes and ∼20% to differences among tribes within zhuzes. The STRUCTURE analysis of the 1164 individuals indicated the presence of 20 ancestral groups and a complex three-subclade organization of the C2-M217 haplogroup in Kazakhs, a result supported by the multidimensional scaling analysis. Additionally, while the majority of the haplotypes and tribes overlapped, a distinct cluster of the O2 haplogroup, mostly of the Naiman tribe, was observed. Thus, firstly, our analysis indicated that the majority of Kazakh tribes share deep heterogeneous patrilineal ancestries, while a smaller fraction of them are descendants of a founder paternal ancestor. Secondly, we observed a high frequency of the C2-M217 haplogroups along the southern border of Kazakhstan, broadly corresponding to both the path of the Mongolian invasion and the ancient Silk Road. Interestingly, we detected three subclades of the C2-M217 haplogroup that broadly exhibits zhuz-specific clustering. Further study of Kazakh haplotypes variation within a Central Asian context is required to untwist this complex process of ethnogenesis.

2022 ◽  
Travis Parker ◽  
José Cetz ◽  
Lorenna Lopes de Sousa ◽  
Saarah Kuzay ◽  
Sassoum Lo ◽  

Regulation of fruit development has been central in the evolution and domestication of flowering plants. In common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), a major global staple crop, the two main economic categories are distinguished by differences in fiber deposition in pods: a)dry beans with fibrous and stringy pods; and b) stringless snap/green beans withreduced fiber deposition, but which frequently revert to the ancestral stringy state. To better understand control of this important trait, we first characterized developmental patterns of gene expression in four phenotypically diverse varieties. Then, using isogenic stringless/revertant pairs of six snap bean varieties, we identified strong overexpression of the common bean ortholog of INDEHISCENT (PvIND) in non-stringy types compared to their string-producing counterparts. Microscopy of these pairs indicates that PvIND overexpression is associated with overspecification of weak dehiscence zone cells throughout the entire pod vascular sheath. No differences in PvIND DNA methylation were correlated with pod string phenotype. Sequencing of a 500 kb region surrounding PvIND in the stringless snap bean cultivar Hystyle revealed that PvIND had been duplicated into two tandem repeats, and that a Ty1-copia retrotransposon was inserted between these tandem repeats, possibly driving PvIND overexpression. Further sequencing of stringless/revertant isogenic pairs and diverse materials indicated that these sequence features had been uniformly lost in revertant types and were strongly predictive of pod phenotype, supporting their role in PvIND overexpression and pod string phenotype.

GigaScience ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Youngik Yang ◽  
Ji Yong Yoo ◽  
Sang Ho Baek ◽  
Ha Yeun Song ◽  
Seonmi Jo ◽  

Abstract Background The shuttles hoppfish (mudskipper), Periophthalmus modestus, is one of the mudskippers, which are the largest group of amphibious teleost fishes, which are uniquely adapted to live on mudflats. Because mudskippers can survive on land for extended periods by breathing through their skin and through the lining of the mouth and throat, they were evaluated as a model for the evolutionary sea-land transition of Devonian protoamphibians, ancestors of all present tetrapods. Results A total of 39.6, 80.2, 52.9, and 33.3 Gb of Illumina, Pacific Biosciences, 10X linked, and Hi-C data, respectively, was assembled into 1,419 scaffolds with an N50 length of 33 Mb and BUSCO score of 96.6%. The assembly covered 117% of the estimated genome size (729 Mb) and included 23 pseudo-chromosomes anchored by a Hi-C contact map, which corresponded to the top 23 longest scaffolds above 20 Mb and close to the estimated one. Of the genome, 43.8% were various repetitive elements such as DNAs, tandem repeats, long interspersed nuclear elements, and simple repeats. Ab initio and homology-based gene prediction identified 30,505 genes, of which 94% had homology to the 14 Actinopterygii transcriptomes and 89% and 85% to Pfam familes and InterPro domains, respectively. Comparative genomics with 15 Actinopterygii species identified 59,448 gene families of which 12% were only in P. modestus. Conclusions We present the high quality of the first genome assembly and gene annotation of the shuttles hoppfish. It will provide a valuable resource for further studies on sea-land transition, bimodal respiration, nitrogen excretion, osmoregulation, thermoregulation, vision, and mechanoreception.

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