2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 91-112
Hafiz Gulfam Ahmad ◽  
Iqra Tahir ◽  
Naveed Naeem Abbas ◽  

In the past few years, software development has seen rapid growth, and developers have adopted different methods to provide efficient procedures in software development, thus reducing the overall bug counts and time delay. Bidirectional model transformation is one such technique that encompasses the development of the object code in both directions enabling an abstract view of the software to the developer; over the year’s researchers, have been able to produce many approaches in bidirectional model transformations (bx), but the cost and best fir for effective model transformation, in particular, a quantities survey will be designed which will discuss the best possible apron in the bx. The methodology for this survey shall be made through SLR to identify around 20 different approaches proposed for bidirectional model transformation; these studies range from the year 2010 till date and are thus, rendered latest in the respective fields of our survey. The gathered results have been calculated on the specific set of parameters that are cost and time of usage time are the main aspects of these approaches, and that is the predicament that has made us produce a systematic literature review (SLR) on this very topic. Thus, this paper investigates different approaches based on their implementation cost and time delay and discusses their limitations, and the approach is implemented. Those approaches have been selected, which culminate in both of these respective parameters. The main objective of this SLR is to provide an insight into the different approaches and establish a well-balanced approach that can be used in bidirectional model transformation in software development.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (24) ◽  
pp. 12121
Shweta Singhal ◽  
Nishtha Jatana ◽  
Bharti Suri ◽  
Sanjay Misra ◽  
Luis Fernandez-Sanz

Software testing is undertaken to ensure that the software meets the expected requirements. The intention is to find bugs, errors, or defects in the developed software so that they can be fixed before deployment. Testing of the software is needed even after it is deployed. Regression testing is an inevitable part of software development, and must be accomplished in the maintenance phase of software development to ensure software reliability. The existing literature presents a large amount of relevant knowledge about the types of techniques and approaches used in regression test case selection and prioritization (TCS&P), comparisons of techniques used in TCS&P, and the data used. Numerous secondary studies (surveys or reviews) have been conducted in the area of TCS&P. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive examination of the analysis of the enhancements in TCS&P using a thorough systematic literature review (SLR) of the existing secondary studies. This SLR provides: (1) a collection of all the valuable secondary studies (and their qualitative analysis); (2) a thorough analysis of the publications and the trends of the secondary studies; (3) a classification of the various approaches used in the secondary studies; (4) insight into the specializations and range of years covered in the secondary texts; (5) a comprehensive list of statistical tests and tools used in the area; (6) insight into the quality of the secondary studies based on the seven selected Research Paper Quality parameters; (7) the common problems and challenges encountered by researchers; (8) common gaps and limitations of the studies; and (9) the probable prospects for research in the field of TCS&P.

Jan G Langhof ◽  
Stefan Güldenberg

The purpose of this article is multi-layered. First, we focus on gaining a comprehensive insight into a research area which just recently received more recognition in management literature: servant leadership. Second, we identify antecedent and outcomes of servant leadership within the existing research body. Third, we synthesize and develop a comprehensive servant leadership model. It assists academics and practitioners in keeping pace with the increasing servant leadership literature. The systematic literature review provides explanations as to why managers practice servant leadership. The study also contributes to a better understanding of the outcomes of servant leadership and brings clarity to a discombobulated group of studies.

BMJ Open ◽  
2017 ◽  
Vol 7 (11) ◽  
pp. e015594 ◽  
James Mahon ◽  
Carlos Lifschitz ◽  
Thomas Ludwig ◽  
Nikhil Thapar ◽  
Julie Glanville ◽  

ObjectivesTo estimate the cost of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) and related signs and symptoms in infants to the third party payer and to parents.Study designTo estimate the cost of illness (COI) of infant FGIDs, a two-stage process was applied: a systematic literature review and a COI calculation. As no pertinent papers were found in the systematic literature review, a ‘de novo’ analysis was performed. For the latter, the potential costs for the third party payer (the National Health Service (NHS) in England) and for parents/carers for the treatment of FGIDs in infants were calculated, by using publicly available data. In constructing the calculation, estimates and assumptions (where necessary) were chosen to provide a lower bound (minimum) of the potential overall cost. In doing so, the interpretation of the calculation is that the true COI can be no lower than that estimated.ResultsOur calculation estimated that the total costs of treating FGIDs in infants in England were at least £72.3 million per year in 2014/2015 of which £49.1 million was NHS expenditure on prescriptions, community care and hospital treatment. Parents incurred £23.2 million in costs through purchase of over the counter remedies.ConclusionsThe total cost presented here is likely to be a significant underestimate as only lower bound estimates were used where applicable, and for example, costs of alternative therapies, inpatient treatments or diagnostic tests, and time off work by parents could not be adequately estimated and were omitted from the calculation. The number and kind of prescribed products and products sold over the counter to treat FGIDs suggest that there are gaps between treatment guidelines, which emphasise parental reassurance and nutritional advice, and their implementation.

Shiza Nawaz ◽  
Anam Zai ◽  
Salma Imtiaz ◽  
Humaira Ashraf

Global Software Development (GSD) involves multiple sites which comprise of different cultures and time zones apart from geographical locations. It is a common software development approach adopted to achieve competitiveness. However, due to multiple challenges it can result in misunderstandings and rework. Rework raises the chance of project failure by delaying the project and increasing the estimated budget. The aim of this study is to identify and categorize the rework causes to reduce its frequency in GSD. To identify the empirical literature related to causes of rework, we performed a Systematic Literature Review (SLR). A total of 23 studies are included as a result of final inclusion. The empirical literature from the year 2009 to 2020 is searched. The overall identified causes of rework in GSD are categorized into 6 major categories which are communication, Requirement Management (RM), roles of stakeholders, product development/integration issues, documentation issues, and differences among stakeholders. The most reported rework causes are related to the category of communication & coordination and RM. Moreover, an industrial survey is conducted to validate the identified rework causes and their mitigation practices from practitioners. This study will help practitioners and researchers in addressing the identified causes and therefore reduce the chances of rework.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document