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2022 ◽  
Jane Suilin Lavelle

The cognitive ability to think about other people's psychological states is known as `mindreading'. This Element critiques assumptions that have been formative in shaping philosophical theories of mindreading: that mindreading is ubiquitous, underpinning the vast majority of our social interactions; and that its primary goal is to provide predictions and explanations of other people's behaviour. It begins with an overview of key positions and empirical literature in the debate. It then introduces and motivates the pluralist turn in this literature, which challenges the core assumptions of the traditional views. The second part of the Element uses case studies to further motivate the pluralist framework, and to advocate the pluralist approach as the best way to progress our understanding of social cognitive phenomena.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 860
Inmaculada Bel-Oms ◽  
José Ramón Segarra-Moliner

The main goal of this study is to analyze whether the existence of remuneration committees tend to disclose more corporate social responsibility (CSR) information. In addition, we test the moderating role played by the proportion of independent directors on boards of directors with the relationship between the constitution of remuneration committees and CSR disclosure. Previous research does not appear to have addressed these questions. The research questions proposed are tested using an international sample of 28,610 listed companies, and we took into consideration information on industrial companies from the Middle East, developed Asian and Pacific countries, both emerging and developed European countries, Africa, Latin America and North America. These findings provide evidence that the existence of remuneration committees is more likely to disclose CSR information, and the existence of independent board members positively moderates the association between the existence of remuneration committees and CSR disclosure. We expand on earlier empirical literature concerning corporate governance and CSR issues.

2022 ◽  
pp. 47-71
D. A. Veselov ◽  
A. M. Yarkin

This paper reviews theoretical and empirical literature on long-run economic development, institutional dynamics, and their interplay. Special attention is given to papers that explore the reasons why pro-growth reforms and institutional changes may be blocked. Among these reasons, over the past years the literature has increasingly focused on inequality in the distribution of wealth and political power as a key factor. This review is structured around two major theoretical approaches that illuminate the reasons behind the transition from stagnation to growth and cross-country income divergence: the unified growth theory (UGT), and the theory of endogenous institutional change. Using the empirical evidence on divergence between European and Middle Eastern economies, as well as the divergence within Europe, the paper demonstrates the value of these approaches in explaining the observed patterns of cross-country long-run development. The paper concludes with outlining several promising directions for future research.

Epidemiologia ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 11-25
Osman Ulvi ◽  
Ajlina Karamehic-Muratovic ◽  
Mahdi Baghbanzadeh ◽  
Ateka Bashir ◽  
Jacob Smith ◽  

Research indicates that excessive use of social media can be related to depression and anxiety. This study conducted a systematic review of social media and mental health, focusing on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. Based on inclusion criteria from the systematic review, a meta-analysis was conducted to explore and summarize studies from the empirical literature on the relationship between social media and mental health. Using PRISMA guidelines on PubMed and Google Scholar, a literature search from January 2010 to June 2020 was conducted to identify studies addressing the relationship between social media sites and mental health. Of the 39 studies identified, 20 were included in the meta-analysis. Results indicate that while social media can create a sense of community for the user, excessive and increased use of social media, particularly among those who are vulnerable, is correlated with depression and other mental health disorders.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Kassimu Issau ◽  
Sanjay Soni ◽  
Innocent Senyo Kwasi Acquah

PurposeThis research examines the interrelationships between market orientation (MO) and entrepreneurial orientation (EO) in the small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) sector. Due to the conflicting results associated with each orientation's influence on firm performance, some researchers advanced that scholars should resort to concurrent observation of the constructs. To the researchers, concurrent deployment of the constructs by businesses is likely to result in an enhanced performance. However, what is lacking in their proposition is how the deployment of these resources should be, thereby leading to a knowledge gap in the literature. The aforementioned gap is what this paper seeks to address.Design/methodology/approachThe study employed deductive research approach, and data were collected from 366 SMEs' owners or owner-managers of SMEs in two metropoles in Ghana. For this study, the hand delivery and collection of questionnaire technique was deployed. The reason is that most respondents may be reluctant to respond to the questionnaires through the post or Internet. Partial least square-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was employed for the data analysis due to its importance in allowing the testing of relationships among constructs. Furthermore, seven-point Likert scale was used to generate responses from the respondents.FindingsThe result indicates that MO and EO have a positive and significant influence on each other. However, the influence of EO on MO is greater. Therefore, when owners of SMEs are embracing the two constructs in their businesses, EO should precede MO. The finding is a novelty of this study. Through this result, the owners of SMEs would have knowledge of embracing EO before MO during the employment of the two constructs in their firms. The study further revealed that not all the components of MO have positive and significant influence on EO, and the reverse is true. Without this study, the owners of SMEs would have placed equal attention on each construct and their components. The study also indicates that deployment of MO in its composite form rather than components is the best way for improving EO.Practical implicationsThe more SMEs engage in MO activities, the likelihood of an increase in their entrepreneurial spirit and the opposite is true. However, engaging in more EO activities would result in higher MO than the reverse.Originality/valueThe findings add to the empirical literature by revealing the interrelationships between MO and EO, which serve as a guide to owners of SMEs and practitioners in their concurrent deployment of the two constructs. The findings would also open replication doors for future researchers in different settings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 76-92
Peña, Elij Maridaine S ◽  
Jon Salvador Reyes ◽  
Gonzalez, Andrew N.

Since there is a lack of empirical literature in the Philippines that focuses on studying the validity of the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis, this study aims to build on succeeding studies testing the validity of the EKC hypothesis in the country. In the current study, we empirically investigate the long-run relationship between the annual Philippine Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions as the proxy variable for Environmental Degradation, Gross Domestic Product per capita, net inflows of Foreign Direct Investment, Renewable Energy per capita, specifically for the period of 1981 - 2019. This paper also observed the Johansen Cointegration results in critically assessing whether the variables were conclusive to test in the long-run measure. For that reason, we investigated the validity of the EKC hypothesis by utilizing the ARDL long bound approach. Thus, our results revealed that a long-run relationship exists, but interestingly, the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis does not exist in the Philippines.  

Go Shimada

This study analyzed the impact of climate-related natural disasters (droughts, floods, storms/rainstorms) on economic and social variables. As the Africa-specific empirical literature is limited, this study used panel data from 1961–2011 on Africa. The study used a panel data regression model analysis. The results showed that climate change-related natural disasters affected Africa’s economic growth, agriculture, and poverty and caused armed conflicts. Among the disasters, droughts are the main cause of negative impact, severely affecting crops such as maize and coffee and resulting in increased urban poverty and armed conflicts. In contrast, international aid has a positive effect but the impact is insignificant compared to the negative consequences of climate-related natural disasters. Cereal food assistance has a negative crowding-out effect on cereal production. International donors should review their interventions to support Africa’s adaptative capacity to disasters. Government efficiency has reduced the number of deaths, and this is an area that supports Africa’s adaptative efforts.

2022 ◽  
pp. 141-170
José G. Vargas-Hernández

This chapter has the objective to analyze the implications that the new geography framework of urban agro ecology has on urban planning. It departs from the assumption that the new geography is a theoretical framework for the for the analysis of the economic, social, political, ecological, technological, research, and science based on the interrelationships between urban agro ecology and urban planning. The methodology is based in a constructive analysis of the reviewed theoretical and empirical literature to infer a model based on the construct of the new geography. Finally, it is concluded that urban planning of local governments can formulate and implement strategies based on the new geography framework in urban agro ecology to proving incentives in new urban developments and to benefit disadvantaged communities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (1) ◽  
pp. 177-190
Natalia Fernández Álvarez ◽  
Yolanda Fontanil Gómez ◽  
Ángeles Alcedo Rodríguez

Most research on Intimate Partner Violence against women (IPV) has tended to present women as passive victims, but in recent years, there has been an increase in studies adopting a strengths-based approach. The aim of the present study is to review the empirical literature about resilience in women survivors of IPV to (a) analyze the consensus on the definition and assessment of resilience; (b) study the correlates of resilience; and (c) reflect on the applicability of such knowledge in policies and professional practice. Following PRISMA guidelines, a systematic search was carried out in the Scopus, WoS and PsycINFO databases. The search yielded 42 articles published in English or Spanish over an unlimited timeframe. Results showed that process-oriented, trait-oriented, and outcomes-oriented definitions of resilience were all adopted in the research and that assessment methods also differed across studies. Individual, relational, and contextual factors were found as resilience correlates.There is a need for a theoretical consensus and for research on the mechanisms through which vulnerability or protective factors exert their influence on groups with specific risk conditions. Finally, governments and institutions should take actions to support women and children and to prevent future IPV. Gran parte de los estudios sobre Violencia de Género en la Pareja (VGP) presentan a las mujeres como víctimas pasivas, pero en los últimos años el número de investigaciones centradas en fortalezas está aumentando. El objetivo del presente estudio es revisar la literatura empírica sobre resiliencia en mujeres supervivientes de VGP para: (a) analizar el consenso en la definición y evaluación de resiliencia; (b) estudiar los correlatos del constructo; y (c) reflexionar sobre la aplicabilidad de este conocimiento en las políticas y la práctica profesional. Siguiendo las guías PRISMA, se realizó una revisión sistemática en las bases de datos Scopus, WoS y PsycINFO, encontrando 42 artículos publicados en inglés o español sin restricción temporal. Los resultados muestran que los estudios adoptan definiciones de resiliencia tanto orientadas al proceso como al rasgo y a los resultados, y que el método de evaluación difiere entre investigaciones. Entre los correlatos de resiliencia se encontraron factores individuales, relacionales y contextuales. Se necesita un consenso teórico y profundizar en los mecanismos por los cuales los factores de vulnerabilidad o protección afectan a grupos con riesgos específicos. Por último, los gobiernos e instituciones deberían  emprender acciones de prevención y de apoyo a las mujeres e hijos/as.

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