statistical tests
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2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-70
Radu-Daniel Vatavu ◽  
Jacob O. Wobbrock

We clarify fundamental aspects of end-user elicitation, enabling such studies to be run and analyzed with confidence, correctness, and scientific rigor. To this end, our contributions are multifold. We introduce a formal model of end-user elicitation in HCI and identify three types of agreement analysis: expert , codebook , and computer . We show that agreement is a mathematical tolerance relation generating a tolerance space over the set of elicited proposals. We review current measures of agreement and show that all can be computed from an agreement graph . In response to recent criticisms, we show that chance agreement represents an issue solely for inter-rater reliability studies and not for end-user elicitation, where it is opposed by chance disagreement . We conduct extensive simulations of 16 statistical tests for agreement rates, and report Type I errors and power. Based on our findings, we provide recommendations for practitioners and introduce a five-level hierarchy for elicitation studies.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. Ahsan ◽  
M. Ashfaq ◽  
H. Riaz ◽  
Z. Khan ◽  
M. Z. Hamza ◽  

Abstract Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a tremendous threat to vegetables across the globe, including in Pakistan. The present work was conducted to investigate the genetic variability of CMV isolates infecting pea and spinach vegetables in the Pothwar region of Pakistan. Serological-based surveys during 2016-2017 revealed 31.70% overall CMV disease incidence from pea and spinach crops. Triple-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA) revealed that all the positive isolates belong to CMV subgroup II. Two selected cDNA from ELISA-positive samples representing each pea and spinach crops were PCR-amplified (ca.1100 bp) and sequenced corresponding to the CMV CP gene which shared 93.7% nucleotide identity with each other. Both the sequences of CMV pea (AAHAP) and spinach (AARS) isolates from Pakistan were submitted to GenBank as accession nos. MH119071 and MH119073, respectively. BLAST analysis revealed 93.4% sequence identity of AAHAP isolate with SpK (KC763473) from Iran while AARS isolate shared maximum identity (94.5%) with the strain 241 (AJ585519) from Australia and clustered with some reference isolates of CMV subgroup II from UK (Z12818) and USA (AF127976) in a Neighbour-joining phylogenetic reconstruction. A total of 59 polymorphic (segregating) sites (S) with nucleotide diversity (π) of 0.06218 was evident while no INDEL event was observed in Pakistani isolates. The evolutionary distance of Pakistani CMV isolates was recorded as 0.0657 with each other and 0.0574-0.2964 with other CMV isolates reported elsewhere in the world. A frequent gene flow (Fst = 0.30478 <0.33) was observed between Pakistani and earlier reported CMV isolates. In genetic differentiation analysis, the value of three permutation-based statistical tests viz; Z (84.3011), Snn (0.82456), and Ks* (4.04042) were non-significant. The statistical analysis revealed the values 2.02535, 0.01468, and 0.71862 of Tajima's D, Fu, & Li’s F* and D* respectively, demonstrating that the CMV population is under balancing selection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 175-194
Dedi Rahman Siolimbona ◽  
Mega Teguh Budiarto ◽  
A'yunin Sofro

Abstract The results of previous studies showed that the ratio of the differences in the level of quantitative reasoning abilities between male students and female students was quite significant. While the frame of reference refers to a series of mental actions through which individuals can regulate the processes and products of quantitative reasoning. Therefore, there are two main objectives of this study, namely to show whether or not there are differences in quantitative reasoning products using a frame of reference between male and female students, then to describe the process of quantitative reasoning using a frame of reference between male and female students. Using Sequential Mixed Methods, this study examined 58 students of class VIII junior high school. The research was conducted in two phases, namely the quantitative phase which included statistical data analysis using the Mann Withney Test to determine whether there were differences in the product of quantitative reasoning using the frame of reference for male and female students. Then the qualitative phase includes a description of the quantitative reasoning process using a frame of reference for male and female students. The results of the study stated that there were differences in the product of quantitative reasoning between male and female students. This is indicated by the results of statistical tests in the quantitative phase, while the qualitative phase found that male students were able to analyze the formulas that were determined according to the results of their own interpretation of the information provided implicitly or explicitly in the questions compared to female students. Keywords: Quantitative Reasoning, Frame of Reference, Gender   Abstrak Hasil penelitian sebelumnya menunjukan rasio perbedaan tingkat kemampuan penalaran kuantitatif antara siswa  laki-laki dan siswa  perempuan yang cukup signifikan. Sedang kerangka referensi merujuk pada serangkaian tindakan mental yang melaluinya individu dapat mengatur proses dan produk dari penalaran kuantitatif. Oleh karenanya, ada dua tujuan utama dari penelitian ini, yaitu menunjukkan ada atau tidak-nya perbedaan produk penalaran kuantitatif menggunakan kerangka referensi antara siswa laki-laki dan perempuan, selanjutnya mendeskripsikan proses penalaran kuantitatif menggunakan kerangka referensi antara siswa laki-laki dan perempuan. Menggunakan Sequential Mixed Methods penelitian ini mengkaji 58 orang siswa kelas VIII SMP. Penelitian dilakukan dengan dua fase, yaitu fase kuantitatif meliputi analisis data statistik menggunakan uji Mann Withney Test untuk mengetahui adakah perbedaan produk penalaran kuantitatif menggunakan kerangka referensi siswa laki-laki dan perempuan. selanjutnya fase kualitatif meliputi, deskripsi proses penalaran kuantitatif menggunakan kerangka referensi siswa laki-laki dan perempuan. Hasil penelitian menyatakan ada perbedaan produk penalaran kuantitatif antara siswa laki-laki dan perempuan. Hal ini ditunjukkan oleh hasil uji statistik pada fase kuantitatif, sedangkan fase kualitatif menemukan bahwa siswa laki-laki lebih dapat menganalisis rumus/formula yang ditentukan menurut hasil interpretasinya sendiri terhadap informasi yang diberikan secara implisit maupun eksplisit dalam soal disbanding siswa perempuan. Kata Kunci: Penalaran Kuantitatif, Kerangka Referensi, Gender.

Wiesław Firek ◽  
Katarzyna Płoszaj ◽  
Paweł Gąsior ◽  
Ewa Malchrowicz-Mośko

In creating a positive climate in sport for children and youth, the role of adults is of key importance as their behavior and attitudes determine the experiences and multilateral development of young players. Relatively recently, the importance of the referee in creating a supportive sporting environment has begun to be emphasized. This concerns, in particular, team sports in which the referees interact with players many times and influence the course of the game. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of the referee–players’ interactions during youth floorball matches in terms of building a positive climate and responsiveness to the players’ needs. Another aim of the study was to examine whether the referee’s qualifications and players’ gender affect the quality of their interactions with the players. The study was conducted among 21 referees officiating matches for girls and boys aged 12–18. Naturalistic and structured observation methods were used in the study. The observation was conducted using a wireless intercom that allows listening to verbal messages directed to the players. Furthermore, the referee’s work was recorded using a camera. The results of the statistical tests did not show any significant differences in the assessment of referees between the groups distinguished in terms of the referees’ license and players’ gender in both examined dimensions. The observations showed that the average rating of building a positive climate by referees during a sporting event measured on a seven-point scale was ‘poor’ (2.81 pts). The referees were assessed significantly higher on the second dimension (responsiveness to the players’ needs), although an overall rating of 3.81 pts means a medium level of interaction quality. The results indicate areas in which referees can improve. They lead to the following conclusions: (i) the contents of training for floorball referees should include problems of pedagogy and developmental psychology; (ii) referees should be equipped with appropriate competencies for building a positive climate during matches and monitoring the players’ needs; (iii) referees appointed to officiate children and youth games should be characterized by appropriate predispositions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 44-49
Ernawati Ernawati ◽  
Yusring Sanusi Baso ◽  
Healthy Hidayanty ◽  
Syafruddin Syarif ◽  
Aminuddin Aminuddin ◽  

Anemia is a state of hemoglobin levels in the bloodless than normal numbers according to the sex and age group. The impact of anemia in adolescents is a decrease in achievement and learning spirit and can cause symptoms such as paleness, lethargy, decreased appetite, and growth disorders. Anemia has an impact not only on the health of adolescent girls but can have a long impact on the health of the mother and fetus. You can see the influence of anemia education on knowledge, attitudes, and practice. Uses the Pre-experimental method with the design of one group pretest and posttest. Sampling technique using purposive sampling with the number of 47 adolescent girls. The research was conducted at Senior High School 12 Makassar in September-October 2021. Data analysis using the McNemar test. From the results of statistical tests showed that there was an influence on the use of web-based she smart education model on the use of adolescent girls about anemia with p-value = 0.000 (p<0.05), attitude p-value = 0.016 (p<0.05) and action p-value = 0.001 (p<0.05). Anemia education using web-based she smart can improve knowledge, attitudes, and practice before and after an intervention.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (14) ◽  
pp. 55-65
Hoang Dinh Linh ◽  
Do Dai Chi ◽  
Nguyen Tuan Anh ◽  
Le Thao Uyen

Abstract—Random numbers play a very important role in cryptography. More precisely, almost cryptographic primitives are ensured their security based on random values such as random key, nonces, salts... Therefore, the assessment of randomness according to statistical tests is really essential for measuring the security of cryptographic algorithms. In this paper, we focus on so far randomness tests based on runs in the literature. First, we have proved in detail that the expected number of gaps (or blocks) of length  in a random sequence of length  is . Secondly, we have evaluated correlation of some tests based on runs so far using Pearson coefficient method [5, 6] and Fail-Fail ratio one [7, 8]. Surprisingly, the Pearson coefficient method do not show any strong linear correlation of these runs-based tests but the Fail-Fail ratio do. Then, we have considered the sensitivity of these runs tests with some basic transformations. Finally, we have proposed some new runs tests based on the sensitivity results and applied evaluations to some random sources. Tóm tắt—Số ngẫu nhiên đóng một vai trò quan trọng trong mật mã. Cụ thể, độ an toàn của hầu hết các nguyên thủy mật mã đều được đảm bảo dựa trên các giá trị ngẫu nhiên như khóa, nonce, salt… Do đó, việc đánh giá tính ngẫu nhiên dựa trên các kiểm tra thống kê là thực sự cần thiết để đo độ an toàn cho các thuật toán mật mã. Trong bài báo này, chúng tôi tập trung vào các kiểm tra ngẫu nhiên dựa vào run trong các tài liệu. Đầu tiên, chúng tôi chứng minh chi tiết rằng kỳ vọng số các gap (khối) độ dài  trong một chuỗi ngẫu nhiên độ dài  là . Sau đó, chúng tôi đánh giá mối tương quan của một số kiểm tra dựa vào run bằng phương pháp hệ số Pearson [5, 6] và tỷ số Fail-Fail  [7, 8]. Đáng ngạc nhiên là phương pháp hệ số Pearson không cho thấy bất kỳ mối tương quan tuyến tính mạnh nào của các kiểm tra dựa vào run, trong khi đó tỷ số Fail-Fail lại chỉ ra. Tiếp theo, chúng tôi xem xét độ nhạy của các kiểm tra run này với một số phép biến đổi cơ bản. Cuối cùng, chúng tôi đề xuất một số kiểm tra run mới dựa trên các kết quả độ nhạy và đánh giá áp dụng chúng cho một số nguồn ngẫu nhiên.

2022 ◽  
pp. 156-178
Vladimir Hedrih ◽  
Andjelka Hedrih

2022 ◽  
Milka Nicoleta Apostu ◽  
Octav Sorin Candel ◽  
Maria Nicoleta Turliuc ◽  

The main purpose of the present research is to explore the influence of religiousness on couple commitment, drawing from previous studies where religiousness was confirmed as a strong predictor for positive relationship outcomes. We also aim to analyze relationship satisfaction as a mediating variable between religiousness and commitment. Furthermore, the study seeks to investigate forgiveness in dyadic romantic relationships, testing its role as a moderator of the association between relationship satisfaction and commitment. The procedure includes the recruitment of heterosexual students enrolled in post-graduate courses and their partners to take part in the present study. The final sample consists of 116 individuals involved in romantic relationships. All participants filled in a series of validated self-reported measures, providing data which was analyzed using parametric statistical tests. Additionally, we conducted mediation and moderation analyses. Results indicate that relationship satisfaction is positively associated with commitment, whereas religiousness is positively associated with relationship satisfaction, thus having an indirect effect on commitment. Additionally, considering overall forgiveness as well as the negative vs. positive components of the construct, we find that positive forgiveness is associated with commitment, when satisfaction is also considered in the equation. The current results have important therapeutic implications, such as using forgiveness-related therapies for couples and enhancing relationship satisfaction as means to consolidate relationship commitment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 289 (1966) ◽  
Matthieu Domenech de Cellès ◽  
Elizabeth Goult ◽  
Jean-Sebastien Casalegno ◽  
Sarah C. Kramer

There is growing experimental evidence that many respiratory viruses—including influenza and SARS-CoV-2—can interact, such that their epidemiological dynamics may not be independent. To assess these interactions, standard statistical tests of independence suggest that the prevalence ratio—defined as the ratio of co-infection prevalence to the product of single-infection prevalences—should equal unity for non-interacting pathogens. As a result, earlier epidemiological studies aimed to estimate the prevalence ratio from co-detection prevalence data, under the assumption that deviations from unity implied interaction. To examine the validity of this assumption, we designed a simulation study that built on a broadly applicable epidemiological model of co-circulation of two emerging or seasonal respiratory viruses. By focusing on the pair influenza–SARS-CoV-2, we first demonstrate that the prevalence ratio systematically underestimates the strength of interaction, and can even misclassify antagonistic or synergistic interactions that persist after clearance of infection. In a global sensitivity analysis, we further identify properties of viral infection—such as a high reproduction number or a short infectious period—that blur the interaction inferred from the prevalence ratio. Altogether, our results suggest that ecological or epidemiological studies based on co-detection prevalence data provide a poor guide to assess interactions among respiratory viruses.

2022 ◽  
Nazanin Farshchian ◽  
Negin Farshchian ◽  
Parisa Bahrami Kamangar

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a prevalent vascular disease characterized by pelvic and limb deep vein thrombophlebitis, and it has a high incidence in traumatic patients. Contrary to older studies, recent research has reported that recanalization in DVT is not a slow process. The present study aimed at the comparative examination of DVT recanalization with Doppler ultrasound in different intervals following treatment with heparin or enoxaparin. This prospective study was conducted on all traumatic patients hospitalized in Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah, Iran, with the clinical and sonographic diagnosis of DVT in limb veins. Doppler ultrasound was performed two weeks, one month, and three months following treatment in order to examine recanalization. Data were analyzed using statistical tests in SPSS16 at the significance level of <0.05. Based on Doppler ultrasound, a significant difference was found between the degree of recanalization in patients aged <45 years and those aged >45 years, between male and female patients, and between different DVT locations (P<0.05). After three months of treatment with heparin and enoxaparin, the degree of recanalization was increased in DVT. Moreover, it was found that Doppler ultrasound is a useful tool for the diagnosis of recanalization in patients with DVT.

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