The Role of Ferroptosis in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Ferroptosis is a newly discovered type of regulated cell death that is different from apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy. Ferroptosis is characterized by iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, which induces cell death. Iron, lipid and amino acid metabolism is associated with ferroptosis. Ferroptosis is involved in the pathological development of various diseases, such as neurological diseases and cancer. Recent studies have shown that ferroptosis is also closely related to acute lung injury (ALI)/ acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), suggesting that it can be a novel therapeutic target. This article mainly introduces the metabolic mechanism related to ferroptosis and discusses its role in ALI/ARDS to provide new ideas for the treatment of these diseases.
Cell Death, A Potential Therapeutic Target in Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome?
Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Induced Cell Death in Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen responsible for the cause of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. P. aeruginosa isthe leading species isolated from patients with nosocomial infection and is detected in almost all the patients with long term ventilation in critical care units. P. aeruginosa infection is also the leading cause of deleterious chronic lung infections in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis as well as the major reason for morbidity in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. P. aeruginosa infections are linked to diseases with high mortality rates and are challenging for treatment, for which no effective remedies have been developed. Massive lung epithelial cell death is a hallmark of severe acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by P. aeruginosa infection. Lung epithelial cell death poses serious challenges to air barrier and structural integrity that may lead to edema, cytokine secretion, inflammatory infiltration, and hypoxia. Here we review different types of cell death caused by P. aeruginosa serving as a starting point for the diseases it is responsible for causing. We also review the different mechanisms of cell death and potential therapeutics in countering the serious challenges presented by this deadly bacterium.