pediatric intensive care
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Gülhan ATAKUL ◽  
Kazım ASLAN ◽  
Perihan ÖZHAN ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 082585972110732
R. Sabouneh ◽  
Z. Lakissian ◽  
N. Hilal ◽  
R. Sharara-Chami

Objectives The Do-Not-Resuscitate (DNR) order is part of most hospitals’ policies on the process of making and communicating decisions about a patient's resuscitation status. Yet it has not become a part of our society's ritual of dying in the Middle East especially among children. Given the diversity of pediatric patients, the DNR order continues to represent a challenge to all parties involved in the care of children including the medical team and the family. Methods This was a retrospective review of the medical charts of patients who had died in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a tertiary academic institution in Beirut, Lebanon within the period of January 2012 and December 2017. Results Eighty-two charts were extracted, 79 were included in the analysis. Three were excluded as one patient had died in the Emergency Department (ED) and 2 charts were incomplete. Most patients were male, Lebanese, and from Muslim families. These patients clinically presented with primary cardiac and oncological diseases or were admitted from the ED with respiratory distress or from the operating room for post-operative management. The primary cause of death was multiorgan failure and cardiac arrest. Only 34% of families had agreed to a DNR order prior to death and 10% suggested “soft” resuscitation. Most discussions were held in the presence of the parents, the PICU team and the patient's primary physician. Conclusions The DNR order presents one of the most difficult challenges for all care providers involved, especially within a culturally conservative setting such as Lebanon. As the numbers suggest, it is difficult for parents to reach the decision to completely withhold resuscitative measures for pediatric patients, instead opting for “soft” resuscitations like administering epinephrine without chest compressions.

Ethel Avrahamov-Kraft ◽  
Alon Yulevich ◽  
Yechiel Sweed

Abstract Introduction The use of electric bicycles (EBs) among children younger than 18 years of age is rapidly increasing worldwide and becoming a substantial contributor to road accidents. We analyzed patterns and severity of pediatric bicycle-related injuries, comparing children riding EBs and classic bicycles (CBs). Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study (January 2016–December 2018) of patients arriving at our medical center due to a bicycle accident. Data were collected from medical records and included demographics, injury characteristics, treatment, and outcomes. Results Of 561 children, 197 (35%) were EB riders and 364 (65%) were CB riders. Injury severity score (ISS) of EB cyclists was significantly higher than CB cyclists (mean 4.08 ± 4.67 and 3.16 ± 2.84, respectively, p = 0.012). The rate of accidents involving motorized vehicles was higher in the EB versus CB group (25.9 vs. 11.3%, p < 0.001). Head injuries were the most common type of injury in both groups; incidence was higher in CB than in EB cyclists. However, loss of consciousness was more common in the EB group (18.3 and 12.1%, respectively, p = 0.057). Lower extremity injuries were more common in EBs versus CBs (55.8 and 37.6%, respectively, p < 0.001). Orthopaedic surgical interventions were significantly higher in the EB group (49.2 vs. 33.2%, p < 0.001), and length of stay in hospital and admission to pediatric intensive care unit were more common in EB compared with CB, although not significantly. Conclusion Injury severity of EB patients was significantly higher than that of CB patients. Accidents involving motorized vehicles were more common in the EB group. Head injury associated with loss of consciousness was significantly higher in EB patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 48 (1) ◽  
Nicola Principi ◽  
Susanna Esposito

Abstract Background Despite the growing evidence of the extreme efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in adults and the elderly, the administration of the same prophylactic measures to pediatric subjects is debated by some parents and by a number of researchers. The aim of this manuscript is to explain the reasons for overcoming hesitancy towards COVID-19 vaccination in children and adolescents and to highlight the importance of universal COVID-19 vaccination in the pediatric population. Main findings Recent epidemiological data suggest that the risk that a child with COVID-19 is hospitalized or admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit is greater than initially thought. Children may also suffer from long COVID and school closure because of COVID-19 can cause relevant mental health problems in the pediatric population. Placebo-controlled, observer-blinded, clinical trials showed appropriate efficacy, safety and tolerability of authorized mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in children and adolescents 12–17 years old. Vaccination in children younger than 12 years of age will allow further benefits . Conclusions COVID-19 vaccine administration seems mandatory in all the children and adolescents because of COVID-19 related complications as well as the efficacy, safety and tolerability of COVID-19 vaccines in this population. Due to the recent approval of COVID-9 vaccines for children 5–10 years old, it is desirable that vaccine opponents can understand how important is the universal immunization against COVID-19 for the pediatric subjects.

Herta Zellner ◽  
Andreas Entenmann ◽  
Iris Unterberger ◽  
Armin Muigg ◽  
Stephan Egger ◽  

AbstractIn this article, we described a case of pathogen-induced bilateral optic neuritis accompanying meningococcal meningoencephalitis in an adolescent male. A 15-year-old boy presented to our emergency room due to progressive severe headache, stiff neck, diffuse extremity pain, fever, and nausea concerning meningoencephalitis. Intravenous ceftriaxone, metamizole, and ondansetron were started immediately. Due to acute autonomic dysregulation and development of petechiae, he was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit. Next morning, the patient developed severe visual impairment. Investigations revealed elevated C-reactive protein, procalcitonin and leucocyte count, decreased platelet count, and clotting activation. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed increased leucocyte count, protein, and decreased glucose concentration with pathological CSF cytology. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed an increased contrast enhancement in the optic nerve sheath, consistent with acute bilateral optic neuritis. He was started on high-dose intravenous pulse methylprednisolone therapy. After treatment with ceftriaxone und pulse steroids, the patient was discharged in good condition without any visual sequel.

2022 ◽  
Yu-shan Tseng ◽  
Ronald Thomas ◽  
Ajit Sarnaik

Abstract Introduction: Physicians use mobile apps for patient care, but few are dedicated to pediatric critical care medicine (PCCM). We developed an easy-to-use customized mobile app for PCCM residents. Our objectives were to evaluate whether this mobile app will improve residents' confidence in PCCM knowledge and comfort level in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU).Methods: We recruited 90 residents from March 2020 to April 2021 for this prospective survey-based, block-randomized, single-center study with a pre-post study design. Participants completed 20-question quizzes at the beginning and end of the rotation. T-test was used to compare the pre-post quiz score difference between the two groups of residents (those with and without the app). At the end of the rotation, subjects also completed a survey with 5-point Likert scale items to compare their comfort level in PICU and confidence in PCCM knowledge pre- and post-rotation.Results: There was a significantly increased improvement in the post-block quiz from the pre-block quiz in the mobile app group compared to the control group (an increase of 0.23 questions vs 1.67, p=0.045). There was a trend of increased improvement in confidence in pediatric critical care knowledge for the App group; however, the difference did not reach statistical significance by Pearson's Chi-square test (p=0.246). Similarly, there was no statistical difference between the two study groups for change in Comfort Level in PICU from the baseline level.Conclusion: Implementation of a service-specific mobile app may enhance residents' clinical experience and improve self-efficacy. Further investigation is warranted.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Ashenafi Seifu ◽  
Oliyad Eshetu ◽  
Dawit Tafesse ◽  
Seyoum Hailu

Abstract Background Assessement of the pattern of admission and treatment outcomes of critically ill pediatrics admitted to pediatric intensive care units (PICU) in developing countries is crucial. In these countries with resource limitations, it may help to identify priorities for resource mobilization that may improve patient service quality. The PICU mortality rate varies globally, depending on the facilities of the intensive care unit, availability of experties, and admission patterns. This study assessed the admission pattern, treatment outcomes, and associated factors for children admitted to the PICU. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was implemented on 406 randomly selected pediatrics patients admitted to the PICU of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital from 1-Oct-2018 to 30-Sept-2020. The data were collected with a pretested questionnaire. A normality curve was used to check for data the distribution. Both bivariable and multivariable analyses were used to see association of variables. A variable with a p-value of < 0.2 in the bivariable model was a candidate for multivariate analysis. The strength of association was shown by an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with a 95% Confidence interval (CI), and a p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Frequency, percentage,and tables were used to present the data. Results A total of 361 (89% response rate) patient charts were studied, 197 (54.6%) were male, and 164(45.4%) were female. The most common pattern for admission was a septic shock (27.14%), whereas the least common pattern was Asthma 9(2.50%). The mortality rate at the pediatric intensive care unit was 43.8%. Moreover, mechanical ventilation need (AOR = 11.2, 95%CI (4.3–28.9), P < 0.001), need for inotropic agents (AOR = 10.7, 95%CI (4.1–27.8), P < 0.001), comorbidity (AOR =8.4, 95%CI (3.5–20.5), P < 0.001), length of PICU stay from 2 to 7 days (AOR = 7.3, 95%CI (1.7–30.6), P = 0.007) and severe GCS (< 8) (AOR = 10.5, 95%CI (3.8–29.1), P < 0.001) were independent clinical outcome predictors (mortality). Conclusion The mortality rate at the PICU was 43.8%. Septic shock, and meningitis were the common cause of death and the largest death has happened in less than 7 days of admission.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Rocío Tapia ◽  
Jesús López-Herce ◽  
Ángel Arias ◽  
Jimena del Castillo ◽  
Santiago Mencía

Background: There is limited data about the psychometric properties of the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS) in children. This study aims to analyze the validity and reliability of the RASS in assessing sedation and agitation in critically ill children.Methods: A multicenter prospective study in children admitted to pediatric intensive care, aged between 1 month and 18 years. Twenty-eight observers from 14 PICUs (pediatric intensive care units) participated. Every observation was assessed by 4 observers: 2 nurses and 2 pediatric intensivists. We analyzed RASS inter-rater reliability, construct validity by comparing RASS to the COMFORT behavior (COMFORT-B) scale and the numeric rating scale (NRS), and by its ability to distinguish between levels of sedation, and responsiveness to changes in sedative dose levels.Results: 139 episodes in 55 patients were analyzed, with a median age 3.6 years (interquartile range 0.7–7.8). Inter-rater reliability was excellent, weighted kappa (κw) 0.946 (95% CI, 0.93–0.96; p &lt; 0.001). RASS correlation with COMFORT-B scale, rho = 0.935 (p &lt; 0.001) and NRS, rho = 0.958 (p &lt; 0.001) was excellent. The RASS scores were significantly different (p &lt; 0.001) for the 3 sedation categories (over-sedation, optimum and under-sedation) of the COMFORT-B scale, with a good agreement between both scales, κw 0.827 (95% CI, 0.789–0.865; p &lt; 0.001), κ 0.762 (95% CI, 0.713–0.811, p &lt; 0.001). A significant change in RASS scores (p &lt; 0.001) was recorded with the variance of sedative doses.Conclusions: The RASS showed good measurement properties in PICU, in terms of inter-rater reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness. These properties, including its ability to categorize the patients into deep sedation, moderate-light sedation, and agitation, makes the RASS a useful instrument for monitoring sedation in PICU.

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