Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
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2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yingying Li ◽  
Hui Shen ◽  
Yike Li ◽  
Mei Bi ◽  
Yanhong Bi ◽  
...  

Background: Some evidence indicates a potential beneficial effect of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, the findings to date remains inconclusive and little is known about whether sex modifies these associations. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate potential sex-specific differences in this associations among Chinese adults.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in an area of Dalian city, China; Chinese men and women who attended the Department of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism between January and December 2020 were invited to participate in this study. All participants were assessed for basic demographic characteristics, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, and other serum biomarkers and serum phospholipid FAs.Results: In total, 575 Chinese adult participants (270 men and 305 women) were included in the analysis. Hypertension and dyslipidaemia were more common among men than women, but there were no significant differences between the sexes in fatty acid composition, except for eicosadienoic acid (EA; 20:2n-6) and total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). The age-adjusted OR for having T2DM in the highest quartile of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) level was 0.47 (95% CI, 0.22, 0.98) in men, and this association remained consistently significant in the fully adjusted multivariate models. In contrast, no significant associations between n-6 PUFAs and T2DM risk were observed in women, regardless of model adjustment.Conclusions: In conclusion, these results demonstrate a notable sex-specific differences in the associations between n-6 PUFAs and T2DM. Higher n-6 PUFA status may be protective against the risk of T2DM in men.


2021 ◽  
Vol 118 (43) ◽  
pp. e2104689118
Author(s):  
Miaozhen Pan ◽  
Fei Zhao ◽  
Bintao Xie ◽  
Hao Wu ◽  
Sen Zhang ◽  
...  

Myopia is a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness worldwide. However, a safe and accessible approach for myopia control and prevention is currently unavailable. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effect of dietary supplements of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) on myopia progression in animal models and on decreases in choroidal blood perfusion (ChBP) caused by near work, a risk factor for myopia in young adults. We demonstrated that daily gavage of ω-3 PUFAs (300 mg docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] plus 60 mg eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]) significantly attenuated the development of form deprivation myopia in guinea pigs and mice, as well as of lens-induced myopia in guinea pigs. Peribulbar injections of DHA also inhibited myopia progression in form-deprived guinea pigs. The suppression of myopia in guinea pigs was accompanied by inhibition of the “ChBP reduction–scleral hypoxia cascade.” Additionally, treatment with DHA or EPA antagonized hypoxia-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation in cultured human scleral fibroblasts. In human subjects, oral administration of ω-3 PUFAs partially alleviated the near-work–induced decreases in ChBP. Therefore, evidence from these animal and human studies suggests ω-3 PUFAs are potential and readily available candidates for myopia control.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (21) ◽  
pp. 9845
Author(s):  
Alexandra Mihailescu ◽  
Vlad Serafim ◽  
Corina Paul ◽  
Nicoleta Andreescu ◽  
Diana-Andreea Tiugan ◽  
...  

Polyunsaturated fatty acids are involved in a wide variety of biological functions. Linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid are two essential fatty acids that the body cannot synthesize. The conversion rates in the body depend on FADS2 genetic variants. Certain variations in this gene are directly responsible for the low levels and poor conversion efficiency of the delta-6 desaturase enzyme, resulting in low circulating levels of docosahexaenoic acid. In this study, we evaluated the impact of the rs526126 FADS2 gene polymorphism on fatty acid levels in a group of two hundred children (n = 95 males, n = 105 females) aged 7–18 years, with obesity defined by BMI > +2 SD. Fatty acid quantification was performed by LC-MS/MS while genotyping for genetic variants was performed using a custom-made hotspot sequencing panel of 55 SNPs. Our results suggest that rs526126 FADS2 gene polymorphism specifically impacts the plasma levels of free n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Finally, the presence of the minor allele G of rs526126 could have beneficial effects, as it was associated with higher levels of free docosahexaenoic acid in plasma, especially in children with low n-3 intakes.


Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (10) ◽  
pp. 3661
Author(s):  
Panayiotis Aristotelous ◽  
Manos Stefanakis ◽  
Marios Pantzaris ◽  
Constantinos S. Pattichis ◽  
Philip C. Calder ◽  
...  

Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are characterized by, among other symptoms, impaired functional capacity and walking difficulties. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been found to improve MS patients’ clinical outcomes; however, their effect on other parameters associated with daily living activities need further investigation. The current study aimed to examine the effect of a 24-month supplementation with a cocktail dietary supplement formula, the NeuroaspisTM PLP10, containing specific omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs and specific antioxidant vitamins on gait and functional capacity parameters of patients with MS. Fifty-one relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients with low disability scores (age: 38.4 ± 7.1 years; 30 female) were randomized 1:1 to receive either a 20 mL daily dose of the dietary formula containing a mixture of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs (12,150 mg), vitamin A (0.6 mg), vitamin E (22 mg), and γ-tocopherol (760 mg), the OMEGA group (n = 27; age: 39 ± 8.3 years), or 20 mL placebo containing virgin olive oil, the placebo group (n = 24; age: 37.8 ± 5.3 years). The mean ± SD (standard deviation) Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score for the placebo group was 2.36 and for the OMEGA group 2.22. All enrolled patients in the study were on Interferon-b treatment. Spatiotemporal gait parameters and gait deviation index (GDI) were assessed using a motion capture system. Functional capacity was examined using various functional tests such as the six-minute walk test (6MWT), two sit-to-stand tests (STS-5 and STS-60), and the Timed Up and Go test (TUG). Isometric handgrip strength was assessed by a dynamometer. Leg strength was assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer. All assessments were performed at baseline and at 12 and 24 months of supplementation. A total of 36 patients completed the study (18 from each group). Six patients from the placebo group and 9 patients from the OMEGA group dropped out from the study or were lost to follow-up. The dietary supplement significantly improved the single support time and the step and stride time (p < 0.05), both spatiotemporal gait parameters. In addition, while GDI of the placebo group decreased by about 10% at 24 months, it increased by about 4% in the OMEGA group (p < 0.05). Moreover, performance in the STS-60 test improved in the OMEGA group (p < 0.05) and there was a tendency for improvement in the 6MWT and TUG tests. Long-term supplementation with high dosages of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs (compared to previous published clinical studies using PUFAs) and specific antioxidant vitamins improved some functional capacity and gait parameters in RRMS patients.


3 Biotech ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
Author(s):  
Amera Adel ◽  
Ashraf El-Baz ◽  
Yousseria Shetaia ◽  
Noha Mohamed Sorour

Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 1629
Author(s):  
Juhyun Shin ◽  
Min-Ho Song ◽  
Ji-Woo Yu ◽  
Eun-Young Ko ◽  
Xiaomin Shang ◽  
...  

The present study was aimed to investigate the composition and contents and the major lipophilic compounds, including the sterols, fatty acids, and tocols of shellfish species. Moreover, to explore the antitumor activity of these lipophilic constituents, their cytotoxicity potentials were determined against five different human cancer cells, including colon carcinoma (HCT116), epithelial melanoma (A2058), glioblastoma multiforme (T98G), lung carcinoma (A549), and adenocarcinoma (HeLa). The results show a significant variation in the contents and composition of lipophilic constituents among the studied species. The highest omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were recorded from arrow squid and pacific oysters, accounting for 53.2% and 53.0% of their total fatty acids, respectively. However, the highest cholesterol content was also recorded in arrow squid (154.4 mg/100 g; 92.6% of total sterols). In contrast, in the Japanese littleneck, Yesso scallop, and common orient clam, cholesterol was just 17.1%, 18.3%, and 18.9% of total sterols, respectively, making them the richest source of non-cholesterol sterols (NCS). Lipids extracted from shellfish species showed ABTS+•- and DPPH•-scavenging activities. In the cytotoxicity analysis, lipids extracted from the Argentine red shrimp showed the highest cytotoxicity against glioblastoma multiforme T98G cells, with an IC50 value of 12.3 µg/mL. The composition and cytotoxicity data reported herein may help explore the nutritional and anticancer potentials of shellfish species.


Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 1627
Author(s):  
Ramesh Kumar Saini ◽  
Parchuri Prasad ◽  
Reddampalli Venkataramareddy Sreedhar ◽  
Kamatham Akhilender Naidu ◽  
Xiaomin Shang ◽  
...  

The omega−3 (n−3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid are well known to protect against numerous metabolic disorders. In view of the alarming increase in the incidence of chronic diseases, consumer interest and demand are rapidly increasing for natural dietary sources of n−3 PUFAs. Among the plant sources, seed oils from chia (Salvia hispanica), flax (Linum usitatissimum), and garden cress (Lepidium sativum) are now widely considered to increase α-linolenic acid (ALA) in the diet. Moreover, seed oil of Echium plantagineum, Buglossoides arvensis, and Ribes sp. are widely explored as a source of stearidonic acid (SDA), a more effective source than is ALA for increasing the EPA and DHA status in the body. Further, the oil from microalgae and thraustochytrids can also directly supply EPA and DHA. Thus, these microbial sources are currently used for the commercial production of vegan EPA and DHA. Considering the nutritional and commercial importance of n−3 PUFAs, this review critically discusses the nutritional aspects of commercially exploited sources of n−3 PUFAs from plants, microalgae, macroalgae, and thraustochytrids. Moreover, we discuss issues related to oxidative stability and bioavailability of n−3 PUFAs and future prospects in these areas.


2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (10) ◽  
pp. 253-258
Author(s):  
A. Evseev

Presented in the paper are three eating patterns for convalescents following the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Eating pattern no. 1 involves an increased content of complete protein necessary for recovery of the immune system. Eating pattern no. 2 includes a higher content of carbohydrates and polyunsaturated fatty acids, i. e. a high energy value of the food intake, as well as a lower content of cooking salt. It enhances an anti-inflammatory effect while polyunsaturated fatty acids increase the number of T-cells, decrease the concentrations of TNF and BSF2. Eating pattern no. 3 is advisory for patients with dyspeptic disorders as a result of an acute infectious disease.


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