Journal of Pediatric Intensive Care
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Published By Georg Thieme Verlag Kg

2146-4626, 2146-4618
Updated Monday, 26 July 2021

Franco Díaz ◽  
Pablo Cruces

AbstractAdvanced airway management of critically ill children is crucial for novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) management in the pediatric intensive care unit, whether due to shock and hemodynamic collapse or acute respiratory failure. In this article, intubation is challenging due to the particularities of children's physiology and the underlying disease's pathophysiology, especially when an airborne pathogen, like COVID-19, is present. Unfortunately, published recommendations and guidelines for COVID-19 in pediatrics do not address in-depth endotracheal intubation in acutely ill children. We discussed the caveats and pitfalls of intubation in critically ill children.

Nancy M. Tofil ◽  
Stacy L. Gaither ◽  
Charli Cohen ◽  
Carrie Norwood ◽  
Jerry Lynn Zinkan ◽  

AbstractPediatric advanced life support (PALS) training is critical for pediatric residents. It is unclear how well PALS skills are developed during this course or maintained overtime. This study evaluated PALS skills of pediatric interns using a validated PALS performance score following their initial PALS certification. All pediatric interns were invited to a 45-minute rapid cycle deliberate practice (RCDP) training session following their initial PALS certification from July 2017 to June 2019. The PALS score and times for key events were recorded for participants prior to RCDP training. We then compared performance scores for those who took PALS ≥3 months, between 3 days to 3 months and 3 days after PALS. There were 72 participants, 30 (of 30) in 3 days, 18 in 3 days to 3 months, and 24 in ≥3 months groups (42 total of 52 residents, 81%). The average PALS performance score was 53 ± 20%. There was no significant difference between the groups (3 days, 53 ± 15%; 3 days–3 months, 51 ± 19%; ≥3 months, 54 ± 26%, p = 0.922). Chest compressions started later in the ≥3 months groups compared with the 3 days or ≤3 months groups (p = 0.036). Time to defibrillation was longer in the 3 days group than the other groups (p = 0.008). Defibrillation was asked for in 3 days group at 97%, 73% in 3 days to 3 months and 68% in ≥3 months groups. PALS performance skills were poor in pediatric interns after PALS certification and was unchanged regardless of when training occurred. Our study supports the importance of supplemental resuscitation training in addition to the traditional PALS course.

Georgios Kourelis ◽  
Meletios Kanakis ◽  
Constantinos Loukas ◽  
Felicia Kakava ◽  
Konstantinos Kyriakoulis ◽  

AbstractPatent ductus arteriosus (PDA) has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Surgical ligation (SL) is generally performed in symptomatic infants when medical management is contraindicated or has failed. We retrospectively reviewed our institution's experience in surgical management of PDA for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants without chest tube placement assessing its efficiency and safety. We evaluated 17 consecutive ELBW infants undergoing SL for symptomatic PDA (January 2012–January 2018) with subsequent follow-up for 6 months postdischarge. Patients consisted of 9 (53%) females and 8 (47%) males. Mean gestational age (GA) at birth was 27.9 ± 2.1 weeks. Median values for surgical age (SA) from birth to operation was 10 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 8–12); PDA diameter 3.4 mm (IQR: 3.2–3.5); surgical weight (SW) 750 g (IQR: 680–850); and days of mechanical ventilation (DMV) as estimated by Kaplan–Meier curve 22 days (95% confidence interval: 14.2–29.8). We observed a statistically significant negative association between DMV and GA at birth (rho = − 0.587, p = 0.017), SA (rho = − 0.629, p = 0.009) and SW (rho = − 0.737, p = 0.001). One patient experienced left laryngeal nerve palsy confirmed by laryngoscopy. Otherwise, there were no adverse events to include surgical-related mortality, recurrence of PDA, or need for chest tube placement during follow-up. SL of PDA in ELBW infants without chest tube placement is both efficient and safe. Universal consensus recommendations for the management of PDA in ELBW neonates are needed. Further study is required regarding the use of the less invasive option of percutaneous PDA closure in ELBW infants.

Mihir Sarkar ◽  
Manas Kumar Mahapatra ◽  
Sanajit Ghosh ◽  
Satyabrata Roy Chowdhoury ◽  
Maha Ashraf Kazi ◽  

AbstractThis study aimed to assess different clinical, disease severity, laboratory, treatment, and outcome-related factors of COVID-19 positive infants admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and to compare these parameters with COVID-19 positive noninfants (1–12 years of age) who also required intensive care admission. This retrospective observational study was conducted in a PICU of a tertiary care, dedicated pediatric COVID facility. The clinical, epidemiological, laboratory parameters, and treatment outcomes of COVID-19 infected infants admitted to the PICU were recorded and analyzed. During comparison with the noninfant group, malignancy and coinfection with dengue and scrub typhus were excluded from both groups. A total 313 COVID-19 positive children aged from 1 month to 12 years old were admitted, of which 115 (36.7%) children required PICU admission. Infants constituted 37.4% of total PICU admissions. Most common symptoms were respiratory (83.7%) followed by fever (60.5%). Fifteen (34.9%) infants presented with shock. Ten infants (23.3%) had myocardial dysfunction. C-reactive protein (CRP) and ferritin were high in 60.5 and 16.7% infants, respectively. Fourteen infants needed invasive mechanical ventilation. Nine patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and five had MIS-C. However, 53.5% infants had different comorbidities. Four infants died and all of them had severe comorbidities. Respiratory distress (p = 0.009), pediatric sequential organ failure assessment score (p = 0.032) and number of ARDS cases (p = 0.044) were significantly higher in infants than noninfants. Infants are one of the most vulnerable groups of children suffering from serious illness from COVID-19 infection requiring PICU admission due to predominantly respiratory involvement. Overall outcome was good among infants without significant comorbidity.

Chetna K. Pande ◽  
Kelsey Stayer ◽  
Thomas Rappold ◽  
Madeleine Alvin ◽  
Keri Koszela ◽  

AbstractEndotracheal intubation is a life-saving procedure in critically ill pediatric patients and a foundational skill for critical care trainees. Multiple intubation attempts are associated with increased adverse events and increased morbidity and mortality. Thus, we aimed to determine patient and provider factors associated with first pass success of endotracheal intubation in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). This prospective, single-center quality improvement study evaluated patient and provider factors associated with multiple intubation attempts in a tertiary care, academic, PICU from May 2017 to May 2018. The primary outcome was the number of tracheal intubation attempts. Predictive factors for first pass success were analyzed by using univariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis. A total of 98 intubation encounters in 75 patients were analyzed. Overall first pass success rate was 67% (66/98), and 7% (7/98) of encounters required three or more attempts. A Pediatric critical care medicine (PCCM) fellow was the first laryngoscopist in 94% (92/98) of encounters with a first pass success rate of 67% (62/92). Age of patient, history of difficult airway, provider training level, previous intubation experience, urgency of intubation, and time of day were not predictive of first pass success. First pass success improved slightly with increasing fellow year (fellow year = 1, 66%; fellow year = 2, 68%; fellow year = 3, 69%) but was not statistically significant. We identified no intrinsic or extrinsic factors associated with first pass intubation success. At a time when PCCM fellow intubation experience is at risk of declining, PCCM fellows should continue to take the first attempt at most intubations in the PICU.

Ahmad Salha ◽  
Tasnim Chowdhury ◽  
Saloni Singh ◽  
Jessica Luyt ◽  
Amer Harky

AbstractExtracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a rapidly emerging advanced life support technique used in cardiorespiratory failure refractory to other treatments. There has been an influx in the number of studies relating to ECMO in recent years, as the technique becomes more popular. However, there are still significant gaps in the literature including complications and their impacts and methods to predict their development. This review evaluates the available literature on the complications of ECMO postcardiotomy in the pediatric population. Areas explored include renal, cardiovascular, hematological, infection, neurological, and hepatic complications. Incidence, risk factors and potential predictors, and scoring systems for the development of these complications have been evaluated.

Jeffrey E. Lutmer ◽  
Christian Mpody ◽  
Eric A. Sribnick ◽  
Takaharu Karube ◽  
Joseph D. Tobias

AbstractProthrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) are used to manage bleeding in critically ill children. We performed a repeat cross-sectional study using the Pediatric Health Information System registry to describe PCC utilization in the U.S. children's hospitals over time and determine the relationship between PCC use and specific risk factors for bleeding. We included children < 18 years who received three-factor or four-factor PCC during hospital admission between January 2015 and December 2020 to describe the association between PCC therapy, anticoagulation therapies, and inherited or acquired bleeding diatheses. PCC use steadily increased over the 6-year study period (from 1.3 to 4.6 per 10,000 encounters). Patients exhibited a high degree of critical illness, with 85.0% requiring intensive care unit admission and a mortality rate of 25.8%. PCCs were used in a primarily emergent or urgent fashion (32.6 and 39.3%, respectively) and more frequently in surgical cases (79.0% surgical vs. 21.0% medical). Coding analysis suggested a low rate of chronic anticoagulant use which was supported by review of concomitant anticoagulant medications. PCC use is increasing in critically ill children and does not correlate with specific anticoagulant therapy use or other bleeding risk factors. These findings suggest PCC use is not limited to vitamin K antagonist reversal. Indications, efficacy, and safety of PCC therapy in children require further study.

Alyson K. Baker ◽  
Andrew L. Beardsley ◽  
Brian D. Leland ◽  
Elizabeth A. Moser ◽  
Riad L. Lutfi ◽  

AbstractNoninvasive ventilation (NIV) is a common modality employed to treat acute respiratory failure. Most data guiding its use is extrapolated from adult studies. We sought to identify clinical predictors associated with failure of NIV, defined as requiring intubation. This single-center retrospective observational study included children admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) between July 2014 and June 2016 treated with NIV, excluding postextubation. A total of 148 patients was included. Twenty-seven (18%) failed NIV. There was no difference between the two groups with regard to age, gender, comorbidities, or etiology of acute respiratory failure. Those that failed had higher admission pediatric risk of mortality (p = 0.01) and pediatric logistic organ dysfunction (p = 0.002) scores and higher fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2; p = 0.009) at NIV initiation. Failure was associated with lack of improvement in tachypnea. At 6 hours of NIV, the failure group had worsening tachypnea with a median increase in respiratory rate of 8%, while the success group had a median reduction of 18% (p = 0.06). Multivariable Cox's proportional hazard models revealed FiO2 at initiation and worsening respiratory rate at 1- and 6-hour significant risks for failure of NIV. Failure was associated with a significantly longer PICU length of stay (success [2.8 days interquartile range (IQR): 1.7, 5.5] vs. failure [10.6 days IQR: 5.6, 13.2], p < 0.001). NIV can be successfully employed to treat acute respiratory failure in pediatric patients. There should be heightened concern for NIV failure in hypoxemic patients whose tachypnea is unresponsive to NIV. A trend toward improvement should be closely monitored.

Sarah E. Gardner Yelton ◽  
Monica A. Williams ◽  
Mollie Young ◽  
Jennifer Fields ◽  
Monica S. Pearl ◽  

AbstractPediatric patients with moyamoya arteriopathy are at high risk for developing new onset transient or permanent neurologic deficits secondary to cerebral hypoperfusion, particularly in the perioperative period. It is therefore essential to carefully manage these patients in a multidisciplinary, coordinated effort to reduce the risk of new permanent neurologic deficits. However, little has been published on perioperative management of pediatric patients with moyamoya, particularly in the early postoperative period during intensive care unit admission. Our pediatric neurocritical care team sought to create a multidisciplinary periprocedural evidence- and consensus-based care pathway for high-risk pediatric patients with moyamoya arteriopathy undergoing anesthesia for any reason to decrease the incidence of periprocedural stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). We reviewed the literature to identify risk factors associated with perioperative stroke or TIA among patients with moyamoya and to gather data supporting specific perioperative management strategies. A multidisciplinary team from pediatric anesthesia, neurocritical care, nursing, child life, neurosurgery, interventional neuroradiology, neurology, and hematology created a care pathway for children with moyamoya undergoing anesthesia, classifying them as either high or standard risk, and applying an individualized perioperative management plan to high-risk patients. The incidence of neurologic sequelae before and after pathway implementation will be compared in future studies.

Michael Wolf ◽  
Kathleen Smith ◽  
Mohua Basu ◽  
Kurt Heiss

AbstractPediatric critical care providers are at higher risk of second victim syndrome (SVS) and emotional distress after a poor patient outcome, unanticipated adverse event, medical error, or patient-related injury. We sought to determine the prevalence of SVS within our intensive care units (ICUs) and evaluate the adequacy of current institutional peer support. A validated survey tool, the second victim experience and support tool was sent electronically to all ICU providers in our pediatric health care system. Of 950 recipients, there were 266 respondents (28%). Sixty-one per cent of respondents were nurses; 19% were attending physicians, advanced practice providers, and fellows; 88% were females; 42% were aged 25 to 34 years; and 43% had worked in the ICU for 0 to 5 years. The most common emotion experienced was psychological distress (42%) and one-third of respondents questioned their self-efficacy as a provider after a second victim event. Support from colleagues, supervisors, and the institution was perceived as low. Support from a respected peer was the most desired type of support by 81% of respondents. Emotional distress and SVS are commonly found among pediatric ICU providers and the level of support is perceived as inadequate. Developing and deploying a peer support program are crucial to staff's well-being and resilience in the high-stress ICU environment.

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