Both iron and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids may play an important role in bone development. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pre- and post-natal iron and n-3 fatty acid deficiency (FAD), alone and in combination, on bone development in rats, and to determine whether effects are reversible when a sufficient diet is provided post-weaning. Using a 2×2-factorial design, 56 female Wistar rats were allocated to one of four diets: (1) control, (2) iron deficient (ID), (3) n-3 FAD or (4) ID and n-3 FAD, and were maintained on the respective diets throughout gestation and lactation. At weaning (post-natal day [PND] 21), offspring (n = 24/group; male:female=1:1) were randomly allocated to either continue with their respective diets or to switch to the control diet until PND 42-45. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone strength were determined using dual X-ray absorptiometry and three-point bending tests, respectively. Pre- and post-natal ID resulted in significantly lower BMD in the spine and bone strength in the left femur. Both ID and n-3 FAD resulted in lower BMD in the right femur, with an additive reduction in the combined ID and n-3 FAD group vs. controls. While negative effects of pre- and post-natal ID alone were reversed in offspring switched to a control diet post-weaning, lower BMD and bone strength persisted in offspring with combined ID and n-3 FAD during the prenatal and early post-natal period. Effects were not sex-specific. These results indicate that ID during early life may negatively influence bone development, with potential additive effects of n-3 FAD. While the effects of ID alone seem reversible, a combined ID and n-3 FAD may result in irreversible deficits in bone development.
Microalgae contain high-value biochemical compounds including fatty acids (FA), protein and carotenoids, and are promising bioresources to enhance nutrition of food and animal feed. Important requirements for commercial strains are rapid growth and high productivities of desirable compounds. As these traits are believed to be found in aquatic environments with fluctuating conditions, we collected microalgae from marine and freshwater environments that are subjected to eutrophication and/or tidal fluctuations. Using this directed approach, 40 monoalgal cultures were isolated and 25 identified through 18S rDNA sequencing and morphological characterization. Based on their high growth rates (0.28–0.60 day−1) and biomass productivities (0.25–0.44 g L−1day−1) in commercial fertilizer under standardized conditions, six new strains were selected. Scenedesmus sp. GW63 produced quality FA-rich biomass with high omega-3 polyunsaturated FA (28.5% of total FA (TFA)) contents, especially α-linolenic acid (ALA; 20.0% of TFA) with a very low n-6/n-3 ratio (0.4), and high FA productivity (32.6 mg L−1 day−1). A high protein productivity (34.5 mg L−1 day−1) made Desmodesmus sp. UQL1_26 (33.4% of dry weight (DW)) attractive as potential protein-rich feed and nutrition supplement. Monoraphidium convolutum GW5 displayed valuable carotenoid production (0.8% DW) with high carotenoid accumulation capability (0.8 mg L−1 day−1). This research provides a pathway for fast-tracking the selection of high-performing local microalgae from different environments for nutraceuticals, functional foods and animal feed applications.
Maternal dietary micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids support development of the fetal and neonatal immune system. Whether supplementation is similarly beneficial for the mother during gestation has received limited attention. A scoping review of human trials was conducted looking for evidence of biochemical, genomic, and clinical effects of supplementation on the maternal immune system. The authors explored the literature on PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases from 2010 to the present day using PRISMA-ScR methodology. Full-length human trials in English were searched for using general terms and vitamin A, B12, C, D, and E; choline; iodine; iron; selenium; zinc; and docosahexaenoic/eicosapentaenoic acid. Of 1391 unique articles, 36 were eligible for inclusion. Diverse biochemical and epigenomic effects of supplementation were identified that may influence innate and adaptive immunity. Possible clinical benefits were encountered in malaria, HIV infections, anemia, Type 1 diabetes mellitus, and preventing preterm delivery. Only limited publications were identified that directly explored maternal immunity in pregnancy and the effects of micronutrients. None provided a holistic perspective. It is concluded that supplementation may influence biochemical aspects of the maternal immune response and some clinical outcomes, but the evidence from this review is not sufficient to justify changes to current guidelines.
Objective Many rheumatologists are inundated with questions about what “natural remedies” and “anti-autoimmune diets” exist for decreasing Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) disease activity. Over the last three decades, there has been an abundance of data from several different trials about omega-3 fatty acids sourced from fish oil, but the findings have been contradictory. This review seeks to present this data so that evidence-based recommendations can be given to patients, supporting the use of an adjuvant regimen with their present immunosuppression. Methods A literature search was conducted using the PubMed, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, and Scopus electronic databases to retrieve relevant articles for this review. Trials conducted on human subjects with SLE with full publications in English were included from 1 January 1980 to 1 April 2021. The impact of fish oil-derived omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on specific clinical features, the innate and adaptive immune response, biomarkers, and disease activity measures were assessed. The initial search yielded 7519 articles, but only 13 met our criteria and were eligible for this review. Results Data from thirteen articles were assessed. Ten trials assessed disease activity as an outcome, with eight trials demonstrating an improvement in patients in the omega-3 fatty acid group as assessed by a validated clinical tool or individual patient criteria. There was a significant improvement in Systemic Lupus Activity Measure-Revised (SLAM-R) scores at week 12 ( p = .009) and week 24 ( p < .001). Additionally, a reduction of urinary 8-isoprostane, a non-invasive marker of disease activity, was observed. There was no treatment benefit seen with respect to renal parameters such as serum creatinine or 24-hour urine protein; or systemic parameters such as C3, C4, or anti-double stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) levels regardless of the dose of the omega-3 LUPUS fatty acids or duration of the trial. Conclusion While there is conflicting evidence about the benefits of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on SLE disease activity, specific measures have demonstrated benefits. Current data show that there is a potential benefit on disease activity as demonstrated by SLAM-R, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), and British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) scores and plasma membrane arachidonic acid composition and urinary 8-isoprostane levels, with minimal adverse events.
In agriculture industries, workers are at increased risk for developing pulmonary diseases due to inhalation of agricultural dusts, particularly when working in enclosed confinement facilities. Agricultural dusts inhalation leads to unresolved airway inflammation that precedes the development and progression of lung disease. We have previously shown beneficial effects of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA) DHA in protecting against the negative inflammatory effects of repetitive dust exposure in the lung. Dietary manipulation of pulmonary disease risk is an attractive and timely approach given the contribution of an increased ω-6 to ω-3 PUFA ratio to low grade inflammation and chronic disease in the Western diet. To prevent any confounding factors that comes with dietary supplementation of ω-3 PUFA (different sources, purity, dose, and duration), we employed a Fat-1 transgenic mouse model that convert ω-6 PUFA to ω-3 PUFA, leading to a tissue ω-6 to ω-3 PUFA ratio of approximately 1:1. Building on our initial findings, we hypothesized that attaining elevated tissue levels of ω-3 PUFA would attenuate agricultural dust-induced lung inflammation and its resolution. To test this hypothesis, we compared wild-type (WT) and Fat-1 transgenic mice in their response to aqueous extracts of agricultural dust (DE). We also used a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor (sEH) to potentiate the effects of ω-3 PUFA, since sEH inhibitors have been shown to stabilize the anti-inflammatory P450 metabolites derived from both ω-3 and ω-6 PUFA and promote generation of specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators from ω-3 PUFA. Over a three-week period, mice were exposed to a total of 15 intranasal instillations of DE obtained from swine confinement buildings in the Midwest. We observed genotype and sex-specific differences between the WT vs. Fat-1 transgenic mice in response to repetitive dust exposure, where three-way ANOVA revealed significant main effects of treatment, genotype, and sex. Also, Fat-1 transgenic mice displayed reduced lymphoid aggregates in the lung following DE exposure as compared to WT animals exposed to DE, suggesting improved resilience to the DE-induced inflammatory effects. Overall, our data implicate a protective role of ω-3 FA in the lung following repetitive dust exposure.