scholarly journals A Deep Neural Network for Detecting Coronavirus Disease Using Chest X-Ray Images

Rajeev Kumar Gupta ◽  
Nilesh Kunhare ◽  
Rajesh Kumar Pateriya ◽  
Nikhlesh Pathik

The novel Covid-19 is one of the leading cause of death worldwide in the year 2020 and declared as a pandemic by world health organization (WHO). This virus affecting all countries across the world and 5 lakh people die as of June 2020 due to Covid-19. Due to the highly contagious nature, early detection of this virus plays a vital role to break Covid chain. Recent studies done by China says that chest CT and X-Ray image may be used as a preliminary test for Covid detection. Deep learning-based CNN model can use to detect Coronavirus automatically from the chest X-rays images. This paper proposed a transfer learning-based approach to detect Covid disease. Due to the less number of Covid chest images, we are using a pre-trained model to classify X-ray images into Covid and Normal class. This paper presents the comparative study of a various pre-trained model like VGGNet-19, ResNet50 and Inception_ResNet_V2. Experiment results show that Inception_ResNet_V2 gives the better result as compare to VGGNet and ResNet model with training and test accuracy of 99.26 and 94, respectively.

AI ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 1 (3) ◽  
pp. 418-435
Khandaker Haque ◽  
Ahmed Abdelgawad

Deep Learning has improved multi-fold in recent years and it has been playing a great role in image classification which also includes medical imaging. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have been performing well in detecting many diseases including coronary artery disease, malaria, Alzheimer’s disease, different dental diseases, and Parkinson’s disease. Like other cases, CNN has a substantial prospect in detecting COVID-19 patients with medical images like chest X-rays and CTs. Coronavirus or COVID-19 has been declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). As of 8 August 2020, the total COVID-19 confirmed cases are 19.18 M and deaths are 0.716 M worldwide. Detecting Coronavirus positive patients is very important in preventing the spread of this virus. On this conquest, a CNN model is proposed to detect COVID-19 patients from chest X-ray images. Two more CNN models with different number of convolution layers and three other models based on pretrained ResNet50, VGG-16 and VGG-19 are evaluated with comparative analytical analysis. All six models are trained and validated with Dataset 1 and Dataset 2. Dataset 1 has 201 normal and 201 COVID-19 chest X-rays whereas Dataset 2 is comparatively larger with 659 normal and 295 COVID-19 chest X-ray images. The proposed model performs with an accuracy of 98.3% and a precision of 96.72% with Dataset 2. This model gives the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve area of 0.983 and F1-score of 98.3 with Dataset 2. Moreover, this work shows a comparative analysis of how change in convolutional layers and increase in dataset affect classifying performances.

2020 ◽  
pp. 9-11
Zohra Ahmad ◽  
Parul Dutta ◽  
Deepjyoti Das Choudhury ◽  
Satabdi Kalita ◽  
Zohaib Hussain ◽  

Corona Virus Disease 19 or COVID-19, was first detected in Wuhan province in China in December 2019 and reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) on December 31, 2019 [1]. It was declared a pandemic on March 11th, 2020 [2] and has till now affected 40 million people all around the world resulting in 1.1 million deaths (as of 18th Oct, 2020) [3]. As the world is reeling under the burden of the disease, it has been imperative for the radiologists to be familiar with the imaging appearance of the disease. Thoracic imaging with chest X-ray and CT is the key modality for the diagnosis and management of respiratory diseases. Although CT is more sensitive, the immense challenge of disinfection control in the modality may disrupt the service availability and portable X-ray may be considered to minimize the risk [4]. Use of portable X-ray has played a vital role in all the areas around the world during this pandemic. The purpose of this pictorial review is to represent the frequently encountered features and abnormalities in chest X-ray and strengthen the knowledge of the health-care workers in this war against the pandemic.

Puneet Gupta

Abstract— Pneumonia is a life-threatening infectious disease affecting one or both lungs in humans commonly caused by bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae. One in three deaths in India is caused due to pneumonia as reported by World Health Organization (WHO). Chest X-Rays which are used to diagnose pneumonia, need expert radiotherapists for evaluation. Thus, developing an automatic system for detecting pneumonia would be beneficial for treating the disease without any delay particularly in remote areas. Due to the success of deep learning algorithms in analyzing medical images, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have gained much attention for disease classification. In addition, features learned by pre-trained CNN models on large-scale datasets are much useful in image classification tasks. In this work, we appraise the functionality of pre-trained CNN models utilized as feature-extractors followed by different classifiers for the classification of abnormal and normal chest X-Rays. We analytically determine the optimal CNN model for the purpose. Statistical results obtained demonstrates that pretrained CNN models employed along with supervised classifier algorithms can be very beneficial in analyzing chest X-ray images, specifically to detect Pneumonia. In this project Transfer learning and a CNN Model is used to detect whether the person has pneumonia or not using chest x-ray.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 011-019
Haris Uddin Sharif ◽  
Shaamim Udding Ahmed

At the end of 2019, a new kind of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) suffered worldwide and has become the pandemic coronavirus (COVID-19). The outbreak of this virus let to crisis around the world and kills millions of people globally. On March 2020, WHO (World Health Organization) declared it as pandemic disease. The first symptom of this virus is identical to flue and it destroys the human respiratory system. For the identification of this disease, the first key step is the screening of infected patients. The easiest and most popular approach for screening of the COVID-19 patients is chest X-ray images. In this study, our aim to automatically identify the COVID-19 and Pneumonia patients by the X-ray image of infected patient. To identify COVID19 and Pneumonia disease, the convolution Neural Network was training on publicly available dataset on GitHub and Kaggle. The model showed the 98% and 96% training accuracy for three and four classes respectively. The accuracy scores showed the robustness of both model and efficiently deployment for identification of COVID-19 patients.

Proceedings ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 54 (1) ◽  
pp. 31
Joaquim de Moura ◽  
Lucía Ramos ◽  
Plácido L. Vidal ◽  
Jorge Novo ◽  
Marcos Ortega

The new coronavirus (COVID-19) is a disease that is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). On 11 March 2020, the coronavirus outbreak has been labelled a global pandemic by the World Health Organization. In this context, chest X-ray imaging has become a remarkably powerful tool for the identification of patients with COVID-19 infections at an early stage when clinical symptoms may be unspecific or sparse. In this work, we propose a complete analysis of separability of COVID-19 and pneumonia in chest X-ray images by means of Convolutional Neural Networks. Satisfactory results were obtained that demonstrated the suitability of the proposed system, improving the efficiency of the medical screening process in the healthcare systems.

2021 ◽  
Hamzeh Asgharnezhad ◽  
Afshar Shamsi ◽  
Roohallah Alizadehsani ◽  
Abbas Khosravi ◽  
Saeid Nahavandi ◽  

Abstract Deep neural networks (DNNs) have been widely applied for detecting COVID-19 in medical images. Existing studies mainly apply transfer learning and other data representation strategies to generate accurate point estimates. The generalization power of these networks is always questionable due to being developed using small datasets and failing to report their predictive confidence. Quantifying uncertainties associated with DNN predictions is a prerequisite for their trusted deployment in medical settings. Here we apply and evaluate three uncertainty quantification techniques for COVID-19 detection using chest X-Ray (CXR) images. The novel concept of uncertainty confusion matrix is proposed and new performance metrics for the objective evaluation of uncertainty estimates are introduced. Through comprehensive experiments, it is shown that networks pertained on CXR images outperform networks pretrained on natural image datasets such as ImageNet. Qualitatively and quantitatively evaluations also reveal that the predictive uncertainty estimates are statistically higher for erroneous predictions than correct predictions. Accordingly, uncertainty quantification methods are capable of flagging risky predictions with high uncertainty estimates. We also observe that ensemble methods more reliably capture uncertainties during the inference. DNN-based solutions for COVID-19 detection have been mainly proposed without any principled mechanism for risk mitigation. Previous studies have mainly focused on on generating single-valued predictions using pretrained DNNs. In this paper, we comprehensively apply and comparatively evaluate three uncertainty quantification techniques for COVID-19 detection using chest X-Ray images. The novel concept of uncertainty confusion matrix is proposed and new performance metrics for the objective evaluation of uncertainty estimates are introduced for the first time. Using these new uncertainty performance metrics, we quantitatively demonstrate where and when we could trust DNN predictions for COVID-19 detection from chest X-rays. It is important to note the proposed novel uncertainty evaluation metrics are generic and could be applied for evaluation of probabilistic forecasts in all classification problems.

Hanafi Hanafi ◽  
Andri Pranolo ◽  
Yingchi Mao

Since the first case in 2019, Corona Virus has been spreading all over the world. World Health Organization (WHO) announced that COVID-19 had become an international pandemic. There is an essential section to handle the spreading of the virus by immediate virus detection for patients. Traditional medical detection requires a long time, a specific laboratory, and a high cost. A method for detecting Covid-19 faster compared to common approaches, such as RT-PCR detection, is needed. The method demonstrated that it could produce an X-ray image with higher accuracy and consumed less time. We propose a novel method to extract image features and to classify COVID-19 using deep CNN combined with Autoencoder (AE) dubbed CAE-COVIDX. We evaluated and compared it with the traditional CNN and existing framework VGG16 involving 400 normal images of non-COVID19 and 400 positive COVID-19 diseases. The performance evaluation was conducted using accuracy, confusion matrix, and loss evaluation. Based on experiment results, the CAE-COVIDX framework outperforms previous methods in several testing scenarios. This framework's ability to detect Covid-19 in various nonstandard image X-rays could effectively help medical employers diagnose Covid-19 patients. It is an important factor to decrease the spreading of Covid-19 massively.

Heru Rahmat Wibawa Putra ◽  
Y Yuhandri

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious respiratory disease caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV2). This disease first appeared in Wuhan, China and spread throughout the world. COVID-19 has had a major impact on public health around the world. On March 9, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a pandemic. Early identification of people with COVID-19 can help limit the wider spread. One of the factors behind the rapid spread of the disease is the long clinical trial time. Rapid clinical testing is a challenge facing the spread of COVID-19. Most countries, including Indonesia, face the problem of lack of detection equipment and experts in diagnosing this disease. Chest X-Ray is one of the medical imaging techniques and also an alternative to identify the symptoms of pneumonia caused by COVID-19. This study aims to identify pneumonia caused by COVID-19 and other diseases based on Chest X-Ray. 107 Chest X-Ray images used as material for this study were obtained from the General Hospital of Ibnu Sina Padang Indonesia, which consisted of 27 images of pneumonia caused by COVID-19, 51 images with other diseases and 29 images of normal lungs. Then pre-processing is carried out as an initial stage and then feature extraction is carried out. Furthermore, the learning and identification process is carried out using the Backpropagation Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm. In this study, 92 images were used as training data, and 15 images were used as test data. The results of calculations carried out using a network with a pattern of 16-100-100-100-2 obtained an accuracy value of 73%. The results of the identification prediction can be used as consideration in establishing a diagnosis of COVID-19 sufferers, but cannot be used as an absolute reference.

Rahul Kumar ◽  
Ridhi Arora ◽  
Vipul Bansal ◽  
Vinodh J Sahayasheela ◽  
Himanshu Buckchash ◽  

ABSTRACTAccording to the World Health Organization (WHO), the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is putting even the best healthcare systems across the world under tremendous pressure. The early detection of this type of virus will help in relieving the pressure of the healthcare systems. Chest X-rays has been playing a crucial role in the diagnosis of diseases like Pneumonia. As COVID-19 is a type of influenza, it is possible to diagnose using this imaging technique. With rapid development in the area of Machine Learning (ML) and Deep learning, there had been intelligent systems to classify between Pneumonia and Normal patients. This paper proposes the machine learning-based classification of the extracted deep feature using ResNet152 with COVID-19 and Pneumonia patients on chest X-ray images. SMOTE is used for balancing the imbalanced data points of COVID-19 and Normal patients. This non-invasive and early prediction of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) by analyzing chest X-rays can further be used to predict the spread of the virus in asymptomatic patients. The model is achieving an accuracy of 0.973 on Random Forest and 0.977 using XGBoost predictive classifiers. The establishment of such an approach will be useful to predict the outbreak early, which in turn can aid to control it effectively.

2021 ◽  
Thiego Ramon Soares ◽  
Roberto Dias de Oliveira ◽  
Yiran E. Liu ◽  
Andrea da Silva Santos ◽  
Paulo C.P. Santos ◽  

Rationale: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends systematic tuberculosis (TB) screening in prisons. Evidence is lacking for accurate and scalable screening approaches in this setting. Objectives: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of artificial intelligence-based chest x-ray interpretation algorithms for TB screening in prisons. Methods: Prospective TB screening study in three prisons in Brazil from October 2017 to December 2019. We administered a standardized questionnaire, performed chest x-ray in a mobile unit, and collected sputum for confirmatory testing using Xpert MTB/RIF and culture. We evaluated x-ray images using three algorithms (CAD4TB version 6, LunitTB and qXR) and compared their diagnostic accuracy. We utilized multivariable logistic regression to assess the effect of demographic and clinical characteristics on algorithm accuracy. Finally, we investigated the relationship between abnormality scores and Xpert semi-quantitative results. Measurements and Main Results: Among 2,075 incarcerated individuals, 259 (12.5%) had confirmed TB. All three algorithms performed similarly overall with AUCs of 0.87-0.91. At 90% sensitivity, only LunitTB and qXR met the WHO Target Product Profile requirements for a triage test, with specificity of 84% and 74%, respectively. All algorithms had variable performance by age, prior TB, smoking, and presence of TB symptoms. LunitTB was the most robust to this heterogeneity, but nonetheless failed to meet the TPP for individuals with previous TB. Abnormality scores of all three algorithms were significantly correlated with sputum bacillary load. Conclusions: Automated x-ray interpretation algorithms can be an effective triage tool for TB screening in prisons. However, their specificity is insufficient in individuals with previous TB.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document