The mid-1960s saw the beginnings of the construction of a Palestinian political field after it collapsed in 1948, when, with the British government’s support of the Zionist movement, which succeeded in establishing the state of Israel, the Palestinian national movement was crushed. This article focuses mainly on the Palestinian political field as it developed in the 1960s and 1970s, the beginnings of its fragmentation in the 1990s, and its almost complete collapse in the first decade of this century. It was developed on a structure characterized by the dominance of a center where the political leadership functioned. The center, however, was established outside historic Palestine. This paper examines the components and dynamics of the relationship between the center and the peripheries, and the causes of the decline of this center and its eventual disappearance, leaving the constituents of the Palestinian people under local political leadership following the collapse of the national representation institutions, that is, the political, organizational, military, cultural institutions and sectorial organizations (women, workers, students, etc.) that made up the PLO and its frameworks. The paper suggests that the decline of the political field as a national field does not mean the disintegration of the cultural field. There are, in fact, indications that the cultural field has a new vitality that deserves much more attention than it is currently assigned.
This chapter traces the changes in federal and state protective policies from the New Deal through the 1950s. In contrast to the setbacks of the 1920s, the New Deal revived the prospects of protective laws and of their proponents. The victory of the minimum wage for women workers in federal court in 1937 and the passage in 1938 of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), which extended labor standards to men, represented a peak of protectionist achievement. This achievement rested firmly on the precedent of single-sex labor laws for which social feminists—led by the NCL—had long campaigned. However, “equal rights” gained momentum in the postwar years, 1945–60. By the start of the 1960s, single-sex protective laws had resumed their role as a focus of contention in the women's movement.
This chapter revisits Adkins and considers the feud over protective laws that arose in the women's movement in the 1920s. The clash between friends and foes of the Equal Rights Amendment—and over the protective laws for women workers that it would surely invalidate—fueled women's politics in the 1920s. Both sides claimed precedent-setting accomplishments. In 1923, the National Woman's Party proposed the historic ERA, which incurred conflict that lasted for decades. The social feminist contingent—larger and more powerful—gained favor briefly among congressional lawmakers, expanded the number and strength of state laws, saw the minimum wage gain a foothold, and promoted protection through the federal Women's Bureau. Neither faction, however, achieved the advances it sought. Instead, a fight between factions underscored competing contentions about single-sex protective laws and their effect on women workers.
The woman stands for Java language (wani ditoto) term used for Homo sapiens gender and has reproduction. The opposite sex from the woman is a man or a male. The woman is a word commonly used to describe mature women. Awareness of Indonesian women to work very large, although the country must work out to become migrant workers, this is shown by the increasing number of women migrant workers every year.Based BNP2TKI report in 2013 the number of migrants reached 512 168 people, consisting of 285 197 person formal workers (56 %) and 226 871 informal migrant workers (44 %). Whereas in 2012 migrant workers reached 494 609 people consisting of 258 411 formal sector (52 %) and 236 198 informal migrant workers (48 %). (detik.com). This research using phenomenology approach by deep interview (unstructured) observation non participants and study documentation. The subject in this research is Javanese Indonesian women. The informants of this research are six women workers. The purpose of this research is expected to describe the shift in the concept of Javanese women carry out tasks in abroad, there are Indonesian cultural values implied by the instincts of a typical traditional Javanese woman, though the housemaids are located in other countries.Social identity theory is a theory that was originally engaged in the area of Social Psychology, with the language and its ability to find and understand the meaning, has become a meta - theory that is able to bring together many disciplines such as psychology, anthropology, sociology, history, communications, as implications is that reality is always social, and the social contextual character always in a state of local culture and history.The meaning of something can be very different in cultures or groups of people who are different because in each cultural or community groups have own ways to interpret things. Groups of people who have a background of understanding is not the same to certain cultural codes will not be able to understand the meaning produced by other community groups.Research described that diversity nations woman patriarchy, Javanese culture properties characteristic of java women clearly reflected in life with workers Indonesia (TKW) is different from another country.
The features of production factors established at the main workplaces of shoe production are considered. The materials on the results of the study of the functional state of the central nervous system of women workers of shoe production in the dynamics of the working day are presented. The level of functional state of the central nervous system was determined by the speed of visual and auditory-motor reactions, installed using the universal device chronoreflexometer. It was revealed that in the body of workers of shoe production there is an early development of inhibitory processes in the central nervous system, which is expressed in an increase in the number of errors when performing tasks on proofreading tables. It was found that the most pronounced shift s in auditory-motor responses were observed in professional groups, where higher levels of noise were registered in the workplace. The correlation analysis showed a close direct relationship between the growth of mistakes made in the market and the decrease in production. An increase in the time spent on the task indicates the occurrence and growth of production fatigue.Funding. The study had no funding.Conflict of interests. The authors declare no conflict of interests.
In the past few decades, increasingly blistering heat due to climate change has created more illnesses and claimed more lives worldwide, an issue mostly ignored because it's an invisible hazard and hard-to-document disaster. Victims are usually vulnerable populations, including workers exposed on a daily basis to heat, who not only suffer from heat illnesses but also from an exacerbation of existing health problems aggravated by heat and dehydration. Research has proved that heat is a higher risk for female workers, who are affected far more often than their male counterparts. India’s informal economy is dominated by the female workforce and many informal workplaces have minimal welfare facilities including toilets. One of the modifiable factors that influence workplace psychology is the lack of access to a private toilet. To avoid embarrassment or harassment, many women refrain from drinking water during the day in order to limit their trips to the toilet, a potentially deadly strategy during hot seasons which has adverse health consequences. A global trend especially in developing nations evidences a higher number of women entering the workforce. With this trend and rising temperatures, the issue is expected to escalate to significant proportions unless workplace interventions and policy level actions are taken at a national level to protect women workers.